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Memories of Another day

Memories of Another day
While my Parents Pulin babu and Basanti devi were living

Monday, May 4, 2009

Re: [communistpartyofpakistan] Digest Number 1365

 gostokanan, sodepur, kolkata-700110 phone:033-25659551

From: "" <>
Sent: Monday, 4 May, 2009 21:58:09
Subject: [communistpartyofpakistan] Digest Number 1365

There are 15 messages in this issue.

Topics in this digest:

1. [balochi_culture] Fw: Chicken a la Carte - SHORT MOVIE. A MUST WATCH   
    From: Mir Raza

2. Poor Sindhi columnists do it again   
    From: Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly

3. Barack Obama, US Policies & Fragile Democracy in Pakistan.   
    From: Mansoor Hallaj

4. Sufi and his Fatwa against Saudi Arabia and Iran   
    From: Mansoor Hallaj

5. Re: MQM and Qadiyanis in Israeli Army   
    From: Khan Arif

6. Global Pandemic and My Lost Love for TILOTTAMA  MAJUMDAR, the Potent   
    From: palashc biswas

7. 99 out of 169 members did not speak single word in Sindh Assembly du   
    From: Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly

8. Zardari Govt. has no money for Defense/Atomic Research?   
    From: S Turkman

9. (no subject)   
    From: S Turkman

10. A Slap on the face of USA & West - Pakistan has built Jet Fighters   
    From: S Turkman

11. Salmaan Farooqi: A snake in grass against President Zardari, Sindhis   
    From: Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly

12. Indonesia: Women won all the seats in Borneo   
    From: S Turkman

13. Excellent US Policies in the Third World Countries.   
    From: Mansoor Hallaj

14. Indian Muslim Leaders Condemn Taliban's 'Jizya' On Sikhs in Pakistan   
    From: yogi sikand

15. Ather Farouqui: Urdu Press in India   
    From: yogi sikand

1. [balochi_culture] Fw: Chicken a la Carte - SHORT MOVIE. A MUST WATCH
    Posted by: "Mir Raza" mirsalimraza
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))


Mir Sa'een.
Thanks for sending this short film.

This is a short film - 6 minutes duration - that won the Berlin Film Festival award.
http://www.cultureu nplugged. com/play/ 1081/Chicken- a-la-Carte 



Messages in this topic (1)
2. Poor Sindhi columnists do it again
    Posted by: "Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly" sindhweek
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))
Issue No: 117
HTML clipboard                               
                                Sindhi columnists again take 'mum' on
                                victimization  of Sindhis in new mega dev projects
                                approved by President Zardari

HTML clipboard                               
                                        SINDH [SindhWeek.Com Report] Columnists
                                of Sindhi dailies who during the recent
                                successful 'Long March' observed by lawyers
                                community tried their hard to cover a series of blunders
                                committed by Asif Ali Zardari, President of
                                Pakistan by giving it ethnic colour of 'Sindhiism',
                                now have taken 'mysterious silence' for Zardari
                                Sahib's act neglecting Sindhis in recent approvals
                                accorded at Karachi for new mega projects almost
                                to please ethnic MQM by denying direct
                                benefits to 'Sons of Soil' i.e. Sindhis.


                                A leading English daily "The Frontier Post" has
                                exposed a gang of three namely Salmaan Farooqi,
                                Secretary General to president Zardari, Syed
                                Mustafa Kamal, MQM City Mayor  [racist &
                                chauvinist] and Fazalur Rahman, chief secretary
                                of Sindh who jointly conspired to covert "Sindh Show"
                                into "Entirely Karachi Show" but poor Sindhi
                                columnists were still 'unaware' of the said
                                injustices and highhandedness to Sindhis.


                                A well known Sindhi writer Mr M. K. Sial in an
                                email sent to 'SindhWeek.Com' has pointed out
                                that despite Sindhi press has good record to
                                challenge army dictators in the past in order to
                                save national interests of Sindh, the present
                                role of some renowned columnists of Sindhi
                                press, is highly regrettable in the sense they
                                have taken 'mum' on neglecting 'Interior Sindh'
                                by Asif Zardari, President of Pakistan while
                                approving mega development projects for Karachi
                                in the name of Sindh on April 20, 2009, he added

SindhWeek.Com - an Online English News - Weekly to cover social & cultural activities of Sindhis living in various countries.

Plz visit: In case, it does not open, visit:


Messages in this topic (1)
3. Barack Obama, US Policies & Fragile Democracy in Pakistan.
    Posted by: "Mansoor Hallaj" tarot66
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Barack Obama, US Policies & Fragile Democracy in Pakistan

US President - Barack Hussein Obama


"I´m more concerned that the civilian government there right now is very fragile and don´t seem to have the capacity to deliver basic services: schools, health care, rule of law, a judicial system that works for the majority of the people. [US President Barack Obama - as reported by The News International dated, Friday, May 01, 2009]Pakistan´s civilian govt very fragile, says Obama

There is a big difference between hating the USA and hating the US Foreign Policy and its Governance regarding the Third World. Nobody hates the USA or American People but they hate the policies of USA toward the Third World Countries.

For Example

1 - Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

2 - Killing Hope : U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II-updated 2003 by William Blum
From a Diary of an American Spy [Rest in Peace]
Philip Burnett Franklin Agee (July 19, 1935 - January 7, 2008)

Inside the Company: CIA Diary (Hardcover) by Philip Agee (Author)

Excerpts from the book CIA Diary Inside the Company by Philip Agee Penguin Books, 1975


... what the Agency [CIA] does is ordered by the President and the NSC [National Security Council]. The Agency neither makes decisions on policy nor acts on its own account. It is an instrument of the President.

... the question of Congressional monitoring of intelligence activities and of the Agency in particular. The problem resides in the National Security Act of 1947 and also in its amendment, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. These laws charged the DCI [Director of Central Intelligence] with protecting the 'sources and methods' of the US intelligence effort and also exempted the DCI and the Bureau of the Budget from reporting to Congress on the organization, function, personnel and expenditures of the CIA - whose budget is hidden in the budgets of other executive agencies. The DCI, in fact, can secretly spend whatever portion of the CIA budget he determines necessary, with no other accounting than his own signature. Such expenditures, free from review by Congress or the General Accounting Office or, in theory, by anyone outside the executive-branch, are called 'unvouchered funds'.

By passage of these laws Congress has sealed itself off from CIA activities, although four small sub-committees are informed periodically on important matters by the DCI. These are the Senate and House sub-committees of the Armed Services and Appropriations Committees, and the speeches of their principal spokesman, Senator Richard Russell, are required reading for the JOT'S.

There have been several times when ClA autonomy was threatened. The Hoover Commission Task Force on Intelligence Activities headed by General Mark Clark recommended in 1955 that a Congressional Watchdog Committee be established to oversee the CIA much as the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy watches over the AEC. The Clark Committee, in fact, did not believe the sub-committees of the Armed Services and Appropriations Committees were able to exercise effectively the Congressional monitoring function. However, the problem was corrected, according to the Agency position, when President Eisenhower, early in 1956, established his own appointative committee to oversee the Agency. This is the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities, whose chairman is James R. Killian, President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It can provide the kind of 'private citizen' monitoring of the Agency that Congress didn't want.
Moreover ... the more Congress gets into the act the greater the danger of accidental revelation of secrets by indiscreet politicians. Established relationships with intelligence services of other countries, like Great Britain, might be complicated. The Congress was quite right at the beginning in giving up control - so much for them, their job is to appropriate the money.


In addition to discovering ordinary state secrets, the CS is responsible for obtaining the most complete and accurate information possible on the global manifestations of Soviet imperialism, that is, on local communist parties and related political groups. The exceptions to the world-wide operating charter of the CS is the agreement among the US, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand whereby each has formally promised to abstain from secret operations of any kind within the territory of the others except with prior approval of the host government. The governments of all other nations, their internal political groups and their scientific, military and economic secrets are fair game.


The most important liaison operation of the CIA is with MI-6, whose cryptonym is SMOTH. It has been almost ten years since Burgess and Maclean disappeared, and SMOTH has apparently tightened its loose, 'old boy', clubby security practices. The inner club also includes the services of Canada, Australia and New Zealand although the CIA receives relatively little from these. Liaison with the Dutch is considered excellent because they facilitate support operations against targets of mutual interest, as do the Italians who tap telephones and intercept correspondence for the CIA station in Rome. The West German services are considered to be thoroughly penetrated by the Soviets while liaison with the French has become difficult and sensitive since the return of de Gaulle.


Psychological and paramilitary, known as PP or KUCAGE, operations differ from those of PI or CI because they are action rather than collection activities. Collection operations should be invisible so that the target will be unaware of them. Action operations, on the other hand, always produce a visible effect. This, however, should never be attributable to the CIA or to the US government, but rather to some other person or organization. These operations, which received their Congressional charter in the National Security Act of 1947 under 'additional services of common concern', are in some ways more sensitive than collection operations. They are usually approved by the PP staff of the DDP, but when very large amounts of money are required or especially sensitive methods are used approval may be required of the OCB (Undersecretary level), the NSC or the President himself.

PP operations are, of course, risky because they nearly always mean intervention in the affairs of another country with whom the US enjoys normal diplomatic relations. If their true sponsorship were found out the diplomatic consequences could be serious. This is in contrast to collection operations, for if these are discovered foreign politicians are often prepared to turn a blind eye - they are a traditional part of every nation's intelligence activity. Thus the cardinal rule in planning all PP operations is 'plausible denial', only possible if care has been taken in the first place to ensure that someone other than the US government can be made to take the blame.

PP programmes are to be found in almost every CIA station and emphasis on the kinds of PP operations will depend very much on local conditions. Psychological warfare includes propaganda (also known simply as 'media'), work in youth and student organizations, work in labour organizations (trade unions, etc.), work in professional and cultural groups and in political parties. Paramilitary operations include infiltration into denied areas, sabotage, economic warfare, personal harassment, air and maritime support, weaponry, training and support for small armies.

Media Operations

The CTA'S role in the US propaganda programme is determined by the official division of propaganda into three general categories: white, grey and black. White propaganda is that which is openly acknowledged as coming from the US government, e.g. from the US Information Agency (USIA); grey propaganda is ostensibly attributed to people or organizations who do not acknowledge the US government as the source of their material and who produce the material as if it were their own, black propaganda is unattributed material, or it is attributed to a non-existent source, or it is false material attributed to a real source. The CTA is the only US government agency authorized to engage in black propaganda operations, but it shares the responsibility for grey propaganda with other agencies such as USTA. However, according to the 'Grey Law' of the National Security Council contained in one of the NSCID'S, other agencies must obtain prior CIA approval before engaging
in grey propaganda.

The vehicles for grey and black propaganda may be unaware of their CIA or US government sponsorship. This is partly so that it can be more effective and partly to keep down the number of people who know what is going on and thus to reduce the danger of exposing true sponsorship.

Thus editorialists, politicians, businessmen and others may produce propaganda, even for money, without necessarily knowing who their masters in the case are. Some among them obviously will and so, in agency terminology, there is a distinction between 'witting' and 'unwitting' agents.

In propaganda operations, as in all other PP activities, standard agency security procedure forbids payment for services rendered to be made by a CIA officer working under official cover (one posing as an official of the Department of State, for instance). This is in order to maintain 'plausible denial' and to minimize the danger of embarrassment to the local embassy if anything is discovered by the local government. However, payment is made by CTA officers under non-official cover, e.g. posing as businessmen, students or as retired people; such officers are said to be working under non-official cover.

Officers working under non-official cover may also handle most of the contacts with the recruited agents in order to keep the officer under official cover as protected as possible. Equally, meetings between the two kinds of officer will be as secret as may be. The object of all this is to protect the embassy and sometimes to make the propaganda agents believe that they are being paid by private businesses.

Headquarters' propaganda experts have visited us in ISOLATION and have displayed the mass of paper they issue as material for the guidance of propaganda throughout the world. Some of it is concerned only with local issues, the rest often has world-wide application. The result of the talks was to persuade most of us that propaganda is not for us - there is simply too much paperwork. But despite that, the most interesting part of propaganda was obviously the business of orchestrating the treatment of events of importance among several countries. Thus problems of communist influence in one country can be made to appear of international concern in others under the rubric of 'a threat to one is a threat to all'. For example, the CIA station in Caracas can cable information on a secret communist plot in Venezuela to the Bogota station which can 'surface' through a local propaganda agent with attribution to an unidentified Venezuelan government official. The
information can then be picked up from the Colombian press and relayed to CTA stations in Quito, Lima, La Paz, Santiago and, perhaps, Brazil. A few days later editorials begin to appear in the newspapers of these places and pressure mounts on the Venezuelan government to take repressive action against its communists.

There are obviously hosts of other uses to which propaganda, both black and grey, can be put, using books, magazines, radio, television, wall-painting, handbills, decals, religious sermons and political speeches as well as the daily press. In countries where handbills or wall-painting are important media, stations are expected to maintain clandestine printing and distribution facilities as well as teams of agents who paint slogans on walls. Radio Free Europe (RFE) and Radio Liberty are the best known grey propaganda operations conducted by the CIA against the Soviet bloc.

Youth and Student Operations

At the close of World War II, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union began a major propaganda and agitation programme through the formation of the International Union of Students (IUS) and the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY), both of which brought together national affiliates within their respective fields in as many countries as possible. These organizations promoted CPSU objectives and policy under the guise of unified campaigns (anti-colonialism, anti-nuclear weapons, propeace groups, etc.), in which they enlisted the support of their local affiliates in capitalist countries as well as within the communist bloc. During the late 1940s the US government, using the Agency for its purpose, began to brand these fronts as stooges of the CPSU with the object of discouraging non-communist participation. In addition to this the Agency engaged in operations in many places designed to stop local groups affiliating with the international bodies. By
recruiting leaders of the local groups and by infiltrating agents, the Agency tried to gain control of as many of them as possible, so that even if such a group had already affiliated itself to either the IUS or the WFDY, it could be persuaded or compelled to withdraw.

The Agency also began to form alternative youth and student organizations at local and international level. The two international bodies constructed to rival those sponsored by the Soviet Union were the Coordinating Secretariat of National Unions of Students(COSEC) with headquarters in Leyden, and the World Assembly of Youth (WAY) situated in Brussels. Headquarters' planning, guidance and operational functions in the CTA youth and student operations are centralized in the International Organizations Division of the DDP.

Both COSEC and WAY, like the TUS and WFDY, promote travel, cultural activities and welfare, but both also work as propaganda agencies for the CTA - particularly in underdeveloped countries. They also have consultative status as non-governmental institutions with United Nations agencies such as UNESCO and they participate in the UN special agencies' programmes.

One very important function of the CTA youth and student operations is the spotting, assessing and recruiting of student and youth leaders as long-term agents, both in the PI and PP fields. The organizations sponsored or affected by the Agency are obvious recruiting grounds for these and, indeed, for other CTA operations. It is particularly the case in the underdeveloped world that both COSEC and WAY programmes lead to the recruitment of young agents who can be relied on to continue CTA policies and remain under CTA control long after they have moved up their political or professional ladders.

Apart from working through COSEC and WAY the Agency is also able to mount specific operations through Catholic national and international student and youth bodies (Pax Romana and the International Catholic Youth Federation) and through the Christian Democrat and non-communist socialist organizations as well. In some countries, particularly those in which there are groups with strong communist or radical leaderships, the Catholic or Christian Democratic student and youth organization are the main forces guided by the Agency.

Agents controlled through youth and student operations by a station in any given country, including those in the US National Students Association (NSA) international programme run by headquarters, can also be used to influence decisions at the international level, while agents at the international level can be used for promoting other agents or policies within a national affiliate. Control, then, is like an alternating current between the national and international levels.

Largely as a result of Agency operations, the WFDY headquarters was expelled from France in 1951, moving to Budapest. The TUS headquarters, on the other hand, was never allowed to move to the free world after its founding at Prague in 1946. Moreover, the WFDY and TUS have been clearly identified with the communist bloc, and their efforts to conduct conferences and seminars outside the bloc have been attacked and weakened by WAY and COSEC. The WFDY, for example, has been able to hold only one World Youth Festival outside the bloc, in Vienna in 1959, and then it was effectively disrupted by CIA-controlled youth and student organizations. The TUS has never held a congress in the free world. More important still, both WAY and COSEC have developed overwhelming leads in affiliate members outside the communist bloc.


Political-Action Operations

Communist expansion brought forth still another type of PP operation: political action. Operations designed to promote the adoption by a foreign government of a particular policy vis-a-vis communism are termed political-action operations. While the context of these operations is the assessment of the danger of communist or other leftist influence in a given country, the operations undertaken to suppress the danger arc pegged to specific circumstances. These operations often involve promotion through funding and guidance of the careers of foreign politicians through whom desired government policy and action can be obtained. Conversely, these operations often include actions designed to neutralize the politicians who promote undesirable local government policy regarding communism.

Although political-action operations after World War II began with electoral funding of anti-communist political parties in France and Italy in the late 1940s, they are now prevalent in the underdeveloped countries where economic and social conditions create a favourable climate for communist advance. The obvious human elements in political-action operations are political parties, politicians and military leaders, although agents in other PP operations including labour, student and youth, and media are often brought to bear on specific political-action targets.

In order to obtain political intelligence as well as to develop relationships with potential political-action agents, most stations have continuing programmes for cultivating local politicians from opposition as well as from government parties. Making acquaintances in local politics is not usually difficult because CTA officers under diplomatic cover in embassies have natural access to their targets through cocktail parties, receptions, clubs and other mechanisms that bring them together with people of interest. Regular State Department Foreign Service Officers and Ambassadors as well may also facilitate the expansion of station political contacts through arranging introductions. When a local political contact is assessed favourably for station goals, security clearance and operational approval is obtained from headquarters, and the station officer m contact with the target begins to provide financial support for political campaigns or for the promotion
of the target's political group or party. Hopefully, almost surely, the target will use some of the money for personal expenses thereby developing a dependency on the station as a source of income. Eventually, if all goes well, the local politician will report confidential information on his own party and on his government, if he has a government post, and he will respond to reasonable station direction regarding the communist question.

A station's liaison operations with local security services are also a valuable source of political-action assets. Because of frequent political instability in underdeveloped countries, the politicians in charge of the civilian and military security forces are in key positions for action as well as for information, and they are often drawn into an operational relationship with the station when they enter office merely by allowing ongoing liaison operations to continue. They are subjected to constant assessment by the station for use in political action and when deemed appropriate they may be called upon for specific tasks. Financial support is also available for furthering their political careers and for a continuing relationship once they leave the ministry.

As final arbiters of political conflicts in so many countries, military leaders are major targets for recruitment. They are contacted by station officers in a variety of ways, sometimes simply through straightforward introduction by US military attaches or the personnel of US Military Assistance Missions. Sometimes the liaison developed between the Agency and local intelligence services can be used for making these contacts. Again CTA officers can make contact with those military officers of other countries who come to the US for training. As in the case of politicians, most Agency stations have a continual programme for the development of local military leaders, both for the collection of intelligence and for possible use in political action.

The political actions actually undertaken by the Agency are almost as varied as politics itself. High on the list of priorities is the framing of Soviet officials in diplomatic or commercial missions in order to provoke their expulsion. Politicians working for the Agency are expected to take an active part in working for expulsion of 'undesirables'. Similarly, where the Soviet Union tries to extend its diplomatic or commercial activities, our politicians are expected to use their influence to oppose such moves. They are also expected to take a hard line against their own nationals engaged in left-wing or communist activities. In the last of these instances success means the proscription of the parties, the arrest or exile of their leaders, the closure of their offices, publications and bookstores, the prohibition of their demonstrators, etc. Such large-scale programmes call for action both by anticommunist movements and by national governments - where
possible the Agency likes to use the same political action agents for both purposes.

But it is not just a matter of financing and guiding local politicians. In situations regarded as dangerous to the US, the Agency will conduct national election operations though the medium of an entire political party. It will finance candidates who are both 'witting' and 'unwitting'. Such multi-million-dollar operations may begin a year or more before an election is due and will include massive propaganda and public-relations campaigns, the building of numerous front organizations and funding mechanisms (often resident US businessmen), regular polls of voters, the formation of 'goon-squads' to intimidate the opposition, and the staging of provocations and the circulation of rumours designed to discredit undesirable candidates. Funds are also available for buying votes and vote counters as well.

If a situation can be more effectively retrieved for US interests by unconstitutional methods or by coup d'etat, that too may be attempted. Although the Agency usually plays the anti-communist card in order to foster a coup, gold bars and sacks of currency are often equally effective. In some cases a timely bombing by a station agent, followed by mass demonstrations and finally by intervention by military leaders in the name of the restoration of order and national unity, is a useful course. Agency political operations were largely responsible for coups after this pattern in Iran in 1953 and in the Sudan in 1958.
Paramilitary Operations

At times the political situation in a given country cannot be retrieved fast or effectively enough through other types of PP operations such as political action. In these cases the Agency engages in operations on a higher level of conflict which may include military operations - although these should not be seen as US sponsored. These unconventional warfare operations are called paramilitary operations. The Agency has the charter from the National Security Council for US government unconventional warfare although the military services also sustain a paramilitary capability in case of general war. These operations seem to hold a special fascination, calling to mind OSS heroism, resistance, guerrilla warfare, secret parachute jumps behind the lines. Camp Peary is a major Agency training base for paramilitary operations.

An indictment of a murderous U.S. foreign policy establishment that repeatedly violates international law, overthrows democratically elected foreign governments, aids in the murder of millions of peasants and workers across the globe, perverts elections and other democratic processes, and ignores world opinion against its actions at the behest of the domestic corporate elite. Rather than presenting a sustained argument, the author presents numerous cases of U.S. malfeasance, hoping that the sheer preponderance of evidence will convince readers that the Government is not acting out of concern for humanitarian goals or even the interests of the majority of its own population.


For Further Reading

Obama's Excellent Choice of Men and Woman too..
Rahm Israel Emanuel, Obama, and Israel.


Messages in this topic (1)
4. Sufi and his Fatwa against Saudi Arabia and Iran
    Posted by: "Mansoor Hallaj" tarot66
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Sufi Muhammad's Religious Edict against Saudi Arabia & Iran

Maulana Sufi Mohammad, chief of TNSM Tehreek Nifaz e Shareeat e Muhammadi
As per the News International Dated:Sunday, May 03, 2009


Jihad not mandatory in Kashmir: Sufi Sunday, May 03, 2009 News Desk
Chief of Tehrik Nifaz Shariat-e-Muhammadi Maulana Sufi Muhammad has said: that there was no Islamic Shariah system in Saudi Arabia and Iran


Osama bin Laden

Quite familiar Fatwa of Takfir (Apostasy) was also issued by Osama Bin Laden against Saudi Arabian Rulers and he didn't even spare the Scholars of Saudi Arabia which resulted in this

Late. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz [Saudi Grand Mufti who issued Fatwa against Saddam and then again Osama Bin Ladin]
When Saddam invaded Kuwait - [Immediately a Fatwa was issued against Saddam - "During the Iran-Iraq war, Saudi Arabia bankrolled the Saddam Hussein regime with the express approval of Washington DC which at that time saw Saddam Hussein as a bulwark against Shia fundamentalism. It came as a terrific shock to the Saudi Royals when Saddam Hussein turned his attention to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Again, the Royal family turned to the Ulema and obtained (with difficulty) a Fatwa, permitting the use of non-Muslim foreign troops on Saudi soil to defend Saudi Arabia against a foreign invader - one the Ulema regarded as a secular apostate. Thus the Saudi Royal family invited the USA to send it its troops for Operation Desert Storm- the operation to defend Saudi Arabia and liberate Kuwait - largely at Saudi expense." As per 9/11 Commission Report "In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Bin Ladin, whose efforts in Afghanistan had earned him celebrity and respect,
proposed to the Saudi monarchy that he summon mujahideen for a jihad to retake Kuwait. He was rebuffed, [Saudi Fatwa issued in 90s against Osama Bin Ladin - Usama Ibn Ladin Al-Kharijee (our position toward him and his likes) - By Abdul Aziz Ibn Abdullaah Ibn Baz [PDF] - Taken from] and the Saudis joined the U.S.-led coalition. After the Saudis agreed to allow U.S. armed forces to be based in the Kingdom, Bin Ladin and a number of Islamic clerics began to publicly denounce the arrangement. The Saudi government exiled the clerics and undertook to silence Bin Ladin by, among other things, taking away his passport. With help from a dissident member of the royal family, he managed to get out of the country under the pretext of attending an Islamic gathering in Pakistan in April 1991."

Despite all the rantings of Maulana Sufi Muhammad of TNSM and other such Khariji Anarchists, Islam discourages Fatwa Mongering of Takfir [declaring someone Apostate].

"The judgement of apostasy and expelling someone from the religion is only appropriate for the people of knowledge who are firmly grounded in knowledge, and they are the judges in the various Sharee´ah law courts, and those who are able of giving legal verdicts. And this is just like the other matters, and it is not the right of every person, or from the right of those who are learning, or those who ascribe themselves to knowledge, but who have deficiency in understanding. It is not appropriate for them to make judgements of apostasy (upon others). Since, mischief will arise from this, and sometimes a Muslim might be judged as an apostate but he is not actually so. And the takfir of a Muslim who has not committed one of the nullifications of Islaam contains great danger. Whoever says to his brother "O Kaafir" or "O Faasiq", and he is not like that, then the words will fall back upon the one who said them. Hence, the ones who actually judge
with apostasy are the legislative judges and those who are able and fit for giving legal verdicts. And as for those who enforce the judgements they are the leaders of the Muslims (wullaat al-amr). As for whatever is other than this, then it is mere confusion."

"Meting out the punishments is only appropriate for the leader of the Muslims and it is not for every person to establish the punishment, since confusion, and corruption necessarily follows from this, and also the cutting off of the society, tribulations and provocations occur. Establishing the punishments is appropriate (i.e. befits only) to the Muslim leader. The Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said, "Pardon each other for the punishments that are between you, but when the execution of the punishment reaches the [authority of the] Sultaan, then Allaah curses both the one who seeks intercession and the one who grants the intercession [i.e. to revoke the punishment]". And from the responsibilities of the Sultaan in Islaam, and from those matters that befit him is the establishment of the punishments after they have been established legislatively, via the Sharee´ah law courts, upon the one who fell into the crime for which the legislator has
designated a specific punishment, such as for stealing. So what has been said is that establishing the punishments (i.e. meting them out) is from the rights of the Sultaan, and when the Muslims do not have a Sultaan amongst them, then they should just suffice with commanding the good and forbidding the evil, and calling to Allaah, the Might and Majestic, with wisdom, good admonition and arguing with that which is best. And it is not permissible for individuals (in the society) to establish the hudood, since that, as we have mentioned, will bring about chaos, and also provocations, and tribulations will arise, and this contains greater corruption than it contains rectification. And from amongst the Sharee´ah principles that are submitted to is, "Repelling the harmful things takes precedence over bringing about the beneficial things".


The Prophet said:

إنÙ'ÙŽ أمÙ'تكم هذه جÙ�عل عاÙ�يتها Ù�ÙŠ أوÙ'لها، وسيصيب آخرَها بلاء وأمورٌ تنكÙ�رونَها،

وتجيء Ù�تنٌ يرقÙ'Ù‚ بعضÙ�ها بعضاً، وتجيء الÙ�تنة Ù�يقول المؤمن: هذه مهلكَتي،

ثم تَنكش��، ثم تجيء ال�تنة �يقول: هذ�ه هذه،

Ù�Ù…ÙŽÙ† أحبÙ'ÙŽ أن ÙŠÙ�زحزَح عن النار ويÙ�دخَل الجنÙ'Ø© Ù�لتأتÙ�Ù‡ منيÙ'تÙ�Ù‡ وهو يؤمن بالله

واليوم الآخر، وليَأتÙ� إلى الناس الذي يحبÙ'Ù� أن ÙŠÙ�ؤتَى إليه

"Safety of this your ummah lies in its first generation. Its later generations will be afflicted with calamities and things you will find repulsive. Trials will follow one another successively until later ones will make the former seem insignificant until the believer will say at the advent of each trial: `This is the one that is going to destroy me.´ So let whosoever wants to be saved from Hell and made to enter Paradise die while he is believing in Allaah and the Last Day and let him do to people what he would like them to do to him ." (Muslim)

Abd-Allaah ibn Mas´ood spoke the truth when he described the companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) by saying:

�إن الحي لا يؤمن عليه ال�تنة، أولئك أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من كان منكم مستنا ، �ليستن بمن قد مات أبر هذه الأمة قلوبا ، وأعمقها علما ،

وأقلها تكل�ا ، قوم اختارهم الله لإقامة دينه ، وصحبة نبيه ،

�اعر�وا لهم حقهم وتمسكوا بهديهم ، �إنهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم

"Whoever wants to follow a path, let him follow the path of one who has died, for there is no guarantee that the one who is still alive will not be tempted. Those are the companions of Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ), the most pure in heart of this ummah and the most deep in knowledge, the least sophisticated and complicated, people whom Allaah chose to establish His religion and accompany His Prophet. So acknowledge their rights and adhere to their guidance, for they are following true guidance ."

ÙˆÙŽØ¥Ù�Ù†Ù'ÙŽ Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù'Ù‡Ù�Ù…Ù' Ù„ÙŽÙ�َرÙ�يقًا ÙŠÙŽÙ„Ù'ÙˆÙ�ونَ Ø£ÙŽÙ„Ù'سÙ�نَتَهÙ�Ù… بÙ�الÙ'ÙƒÙ�تَابÙ� Ù„Ù�تَحÙ'سَبÙ�وهÙ� Ù…Ù�Ù†ÙŽ الÙ'ÙƒÙ�تَابÙ�

وَمَا Ù‡Ù�ÙˆÙŽ Ù…Ù�Ù†ÙŽ الÙ'ÙƒÙ�تَابÙ� ÙˆÙŽÙŠÙŽÙ‚Ù�ولÙ�ونَ Ù‡Ù�ÙˆÙŽ Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù' عÙ�ندÙ� اللÙ'Ù‡Ù� وَمَا Ù‡Ù�ÙˆÙŽ Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù' عÙ�ندÙ� اللÙ'Ù‡Ù�

ÙˆÙŽÙŠÙŽÙ‚Ù�ولÙ�ونَ عَلَى اللÙ'Ù‡Ù� الÙ'ÙƒÙŽØ°Ù�بَ ÙˆÙŽÙ‡Ù�Ù…Ù' يَعÙ'Ù„ÙŽÙ…Ù�ونَ

{ and verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (while they read it) , so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say, "This is from Allah," but it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it.} [3:78].

Imam ibn Al-Qayyim said, "The origin of Kufr and Shirk comes from saying about Allah without knowledge, which is one of the most prohibited acts in the Sight of Allah. It produces the most harmful effects, because it entails lying with regards to Allah and describing Him with what is not appropriate. This also entails changing and altering Allah´s religion, denying what He has approved while approving what He has denied, implementing what He has rejected while rejecting what He has commanded to be carried out, hating those who are His loyalists while taking His enemies as loyal friends, detesting what He loves while loving what He hates, and describing Him with what is not appropriate with regards to His Attributes, Speech and Actions."

Allah has forbidden us from following our lusts and desires, and declared that doing so is not the path of the believers, but instead is the path of the disbelievers and the heretics. Allah said about such people, what translated means,

Ø£ÙŽÙ�َرَأَيÙ'تَ Ù…ÙŽÙ†Ù� اتÙ'َخَذَ Ø¥Ù�Ù„ÙŽÙ‡ÙŽÙ‡Ù� هَوَاهÙ�

Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilah (god)? [45:23].

The Salaf used to call those who follow the sayings that contradict the Quran and Sunnah and those who innovate in the religion, "Ahlu Al- Ahwa´," meaning the people who follow the desires.

This is because such people discard the Quran and Sunnah and what they legislate, and instead follow their opinions and desires and depend on them.

They have even made their desires and lusts as the indisputable source of legislation, and declared that the Texts of the Quran and Sunnah do not necessarily lead to certain and clear rulings.

They thus accept the Texts only if they are in harmony with their opinions and desires, and they reject the rest or alter their meanings in the manner they see fit.

The Messenger of Allaah said,

إياكم والغلو �ي الدين، �إنما أهلك من كان قبلكم الغلو �ي الدين

"Beware of extremism in religion, for it is extremism in religion that destroyed those who were before you." (Ahmad and An-Nasaaee)

Imaam Maalik said,

ينبغي للمرء أن لا يتكلم إلا �يما أحاط به خيرًا، �قد كان رسول الله وهو إمام المسلمين وسيد العالمين ي�سأل �ي الشيء، �ما يجيب حتى يأتيه الوحي من السماء

"It is incumbent upon a person not to speak on an issue until he knows everything about it. Even the Messenger of Allaah who is the leader of all Muslims would not answer a question posed to him until he received a revelation to that effect from Heaven."

Asking the people of knowledge

Ù�َاسÙ'Ø£ÙŽÙ„Ù�واÙ' Ø£ÙŽÙ‡Ù'Ù„ÙŽ الذÙ'Ù�ÙƒÙ'رÙ� Ø¥Ù�Ù† ÙƒÙ�نتÙ�Ù…Ù' لاَ تَعÙ'Ù„ÙŽÙ…Ù�ونَ

Ask the people of knowledge if you do not know. ( 16:43)

The Shaykh `Allaamah Saalih Al-Fawzaan was asked:

هل أسامة بن لادن ومن تبعه من قوله وأيدهم على مذهبهم ي�عتبرون من الخوارج؟

Is Bin Laden and those who follow his views and promote his beliefs considered to be from the (deviant sect known as the) Khawaarij?

He responded:

عندكم قاعدة أن الذي يخرج على ولي الأمر أنه من الخوارج سواء أسامة بن لادن أو غيره، اللي يخرج على ولاة أمور المسلمين هذا من الخوارج .

There is a (well known) principle, and this is that everyone who rebels against those in authority is considered to be from the Khawaarij, whether this is Bin Laden or anyone else. Anyone who rebels against the Muslim leaders is deemed to be from the Khawaarij.

1427/2/5 in the lesson `The Explanation of the Creed'

Question: Are those who carry the ideology of the Khawarij present today?

Answer: Far removed is Allah from all imperfections! And that which is happening today, is it not from the actions of the Khawarij? And it is declaring the Muslims to be disbelievers, and more severe than that is the killing of the Muslims and transgressing against them through terrorist activities. And this is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, it comprises of three aspects:

Firstly - Takfir of the Muslims.

Secondly - Disobedience to the ruler.

Thirdly - Making permissible the blood of the Muslims.

This is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, and even if a person believed it in his heart and did not speak (with any of it) or did not act out any of it, he would still become a Khariji in his belief and opinion, which he did not express openly.

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahd al-Husayn.

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: Is the one who makes Takfir of the rulers and encourages the Muslims to revolt against their rulers, to be considered from the Khawarij?

Answer: This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij. When an individual holds it permissible to revolt against the Muslim rulers, and more severe than that is to declare them to be disbelievers. This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij.

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn.

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: What is our position towards those who make Takfir of the Muslim rulers today, generally and in detail? Are they (those who make Takfir of the rulers) considered to be from the Khawarij?

Answer: Those who declare the Muslim rulers to be disbelievers in general, then these are from the most extreme of the Khawarij because they do not exclude anyone and give the ruling of disbelief to all the Muslims rulers. So this is most severe form of the Madhhab of the Khawarij, because they generalized (the declaration of disbelief).

Shaykh Saleh al-Fawazan

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah" by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar

Question: What is your advice to those who say that this country fights the deen and restricts the du´aat?

Answer: Since the Saudi state began, it has been aiding the deen and its people, and it was not set up except on this foundation.

And now it aids the Muslims in every place with financial help, building Islamic centers and masajid, sending du´aat, printing books foremost amongst them - the Noble Qur´an, opening centers of learning and Shari´ah colleges, and also it rules by the Islamic Shari´ah and has an independent body for enjoining good and forbidding evil in every town.

And all of that is a proof that this state aids Islam and its people, and it is a thorn in the throats of the hypocrites and the people of evil and splitting.

And Allah will aid His deen even if the mushrikun and those of evil intentions hate it.

And we do not say that this state is perfect in every way and that it doesn´t have any mistakes.

Mistakes occur from everyone, but we ask Allah to aid us in rectifying the mistakes.

And if the one who said this looked at himself he would find mistakes in himself which would prevent him from speaking about others and he would be ashamed to look at the people. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

Ø¥Ù�Ù†Ù'َمَا جَزَاءÙ� الÙ'ÙŽØ°Ù�ينَ ÙŠÙ�حَارÙ�بÙ�ونَ اللÙ'ÙŽÙ‡ÙŽ وَرَسÙ�ولَهÙ� وَيَسÙ'عَوÙ'Ù†ÙŽ Ù�Ù�ÙŠ الأَرÙ'ضÙ� Ù�َسَادًا

Ø£ÙŽÙ†Ù' ÙŠÙ�قَتÙ'ÙŽÙ„Ù�وا Ø£ÙŽÙˆÙ' ÙŠÙ�صَلÙ'َبÙ�وا Ø£ÙŽÙˆÙ' تÙ�Ù‚ÙŽØ·Ù'َعَ Ø£ÙŽÙŠÙ'دÙ�يهÙ�Ù…Ù' وَأَرÙ'جÙ�Ù„Ù�Ù‡Ù�Ù…Ù' Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù' Ø®Ù�لاÙ�Ù� Ø£ÙŽÙˆÙ' ÙŠÙ�Ù†Ù�ÙŽÙˆÙ'ا Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù' الأَرÙ'ضÙ�

Ø°ÙŽÙ„Ù�ÙƒÙŽ Ù„ÙŽÙ‡Ù�Ù…Ù' Ø®Ù�زÙ'ÙŠÙŒ Ù�Ù�ÙŠ الدÙ'Ù�نيَا ÙˆÙŽÙ„ÙŽÙ‡Ù�Ù…Ù' Ù�Ù�ÙŠ الآخÙ�رَةÙ� عَذَابٌ عَظÙ�يمٌ

"The recompense of those who wage war against Allaah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off from opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter." (Al-Maaidah 5:33)


Al-Khawarij is plural for "Kharij", meaning one who rebels against the acknowledged Muslim ruler whom Islam obliges every Muslim to obey and not rebel against.

This definition of Al- Khawarij, which is taken from Islamic terminology, has become a trademark for the twelve thousand Muslims who rebelled against Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and this includes all the groups that followed their way of understanding the religion.

These groups have since been known as "Al-Khawarij" even though they carried different names.

Among those groups are: Al- Muh´akkimah, Ash- Sharat, Al- `Haroriyyah, An- Nawa-sib, and Al- Mariqhah.

Al-Khawarij are the people whom the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, mentioned when he said, what translated means, "A group will go astray during a time of division between Muslims. The closest among the adversaries (the side of Ali bin Abi Talib and the side of Mu´awiyah) to the Truth will kill them (the deviant group, Al-Khawarij)."

Also, the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said regarding a man who once accused him of injustice, "From among the offspring of this man there will rise a people who will read the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats (meaning it will not enter their hearts). They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers. They will deviate from Islam (as fast and clean) as an arrow pierces the game. If I live to witness their appearance, I will kill them as the people of `Aad (whom Allah utterly destroyed and annihilated because of their disbelief) were killed." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

He further said, "Just before the end of time, young, idiotic people will rise. They will say words similar to (the good words) of the best people. They will recite the Quran, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will deviate from the religion as fast as an arrow pierces the game. If you meet them, kill them, for killing them will bring about a reward from Allah on the Day of Resurrection for whoever kills them." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim].

The companions of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, were unanimous in their decision to fight Al-Khawarij. Also, the majority of the scholars of Islam state that it is an obligation to fight them.

Soon after they appeared as a distinct group, Al-Khawarij divided into seven groups, among them Al- Muh´akkimah who fought Ali bin Abi Talib.

Al-Khawarij accused Ali of Kufr and announced their animosity towards him. They departed to Haroraa´ and chose two men as their leaders, one to lead them in prayer and the other to lead their forces in battle. When Ali realized the danger posed by these people, he sent Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, to debate them and expose their erroneous ways. Ibn Abbas argued with them and refuted the arguments supporting the positions they took. Many of them abandoned the camp of Al-´Haroriyyah and rejoined the camp of Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib.

However, their leaders and those who remained with them refused to abandon their rebellion against the righteous Khalifah, Ali. They announced that their campaign of war against their adversaries will continue. Ali bin Abi Talib then decided to meet them himself.

He called upon them to rejoin the ranks of the Khalifah and abandon their deviant ways. He also refuted their arguments and nullified their misguided way of understanding the religion.

However, they persisted in their defiance of the Khalifah and camped their forces at the area of An-Nahrawan.

On their way to An-Nahrawan, Al-Khawarij met Abdullah -- the son of Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, a noble companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, and seized him. They asked him, "Who are you?" He replied, "I am Abdullah bin Khabbab, the companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam." They said, "Narrate to us a Hadith you heard from your father who related it to the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam." He said, "I heard my father say, `The Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said, `There will be a Fitnah (calamity and division) in which those who sit idle are better than those who walk, and those who walk are better than those who rush. Therefore, whoever has no choice but to kill or be killed, let him be killed and let him not be the killer.´" They asked him, "What do you say regarding Abu Bakr and Umar?" Abdullah said good words of praise regarding them. They said, "What do you say with
regards to At- Ta´hkim (when Ali and Mu´awiyah reverted to some of the companions to judge between them in their dispute, according to the Quran and Sunnah)?"

He said, "I say that Ali has better knowledge in the Book of Allah, is more careful with the religion, and has more wisdom than you!" They said, "You do not follow the Truth and Guidance. Rather, you follow men according to their fame." They then said to him, "This Quran (which you carry) around your neck commands us to kill you." He said, "Whoever the Quran preserves his life, you preserve his life in turn.

And whoever the Quran sheds his blood, give him death in turn." Then, they brought Abdullah bin Khabbab closer to the river, and one of them, Musmi´ bin Qhadali, slit his throat. Then, they entered his house and killed his children and also his wife, who was pregnant, and slit open her stomach.

When Ali bin Talib heard what Al-Khawarij did to Abdullah bin Khabbab and his family, he led an expedition of four thousand soldiers to arrest those who committed this atrocity. When he reached their area, he asked them to deliver those who killed Abdullah. They said to Ali´s emissary, "We all killed him. And, furthermore, if we catch you (meaning

Ali) we will kill you too." Then, Ali prepared to fight them.

But before the battle commenced, he asked them, "What do you dislike as regards my matter?" They said, "We hate that you, when we fought with you on the Day (incident) of Al-Jamal, allowed for us their (the side of `Aaishah, Tal´hah, and Az-Zubair) possessions after we defeated them but did not allow us to seize their women and children as slaves. Why did you allow us to shed their blood and seize their possessions but not their women and children?" Ali said, "I only allowed you to seize their possession in return for their looting the Muslim treasury in the city of Basrah before I came to meet them (to convince them to end their rebellion). As for their women and children, they did not fight against us and they, therefore, still enjoyed the rights of Muslims who live in the Islamic state. Also, if I had allowed their women for you, who among you would have liked to take `Aaishah (the Prophet´s wife) as his share?" They became ashamed
and silent.

Thereafter, Ali refuted all their arguments and, as a consequence, eight thousand of them rejoined his camp. However, four thousand of them insisted on fighting, led by Abdullah bin Wahb Ar-Rasibi and Thu Al-Khuwaysirah (also known as Thu Ath-Thadiyyah), whose name was Hurqus bin Zaid.

Soon afterwards, the battle between Ali and Al-Khawarij commenced, and Ali´s army defeated and killed them all except nine people.

After the battle ended, Ali ordered his soldiers to search for Thu Ath- Thadiyyah, who was then found among the dead. Ali then said, "Allah and His Messenger have said the truth," because before he passed away, the Prophet Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam had told Ali that he should search for Thu Ath-Thadiyyah among the dead when he meets these rebels.

This sect of Al-Khawarij, also known as Al-Mu´hakkimah, considers Uthman, Ali, `Aaishah, Tal´hah, and Az-Zubair as Kuffar. They also oblige the removal or assassination of the Muslim ruler who does not agree with their way of understanding the religion.

Furthermore, they accept the Muslim Ummah being leaderless, allow shedding the blood of the women and children of their adversaries, consider those who fall into major sins as Kuffar, and prohibit marrying the women of those who do not follow them, because they consider them also as Kuffar.

Also, among the sub-sects of Al-Khawarij is Al-Bayhasiyyah. They are the followers of Abu Bayhas, Al- Haytham bin Jabir. They claim that knowledge is only knowing Allah and what the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, was sent with. They consider whoever falls into an action not knowing if it permissible or forbidden as Kafir, since he lacks the "knowledge".

Al-Azariqhah is another Khawarij sub-sect. They are the followers of Nafi´ bin Al-Azraqh who was known as Abu Rashid. When he first appeared, he rebelled against Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr -- a companion of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam. Many people from Oman and Al-Yamamah also joined Nafi´. They later moved to Persia and took over the area of Al- Ahwaz after they killed Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr´s deputy in that area. They soon controlled Al-Ahwaz and adjacent areas in Persia.

As is the case with other deviant sects, Al-Azariqhah consider their adversaries as Kuffar. They consider those who join their ranks as believers and all others who do not as Kuffar. Yet, they believe that whoever joins their ranks must first be tested to prove his allegiance by ordering him to kill a Muslim captive. Otherwise, he would be killed himself. Also, Al- Azariqhah permit killing the women and children of their adversaries and consider those adversaries to be bound to dwell in Hell for eternity along with their women and children. They also consider the areas that do not join them to be areas of Kufr. Furthermore, they abandon stoning the adulterer, compel women to pray and fast while in their menses, consider Muslims who commit major sins as Kuffar, and allow shedding the blood of Muslims who do not join their ranks. Yet, they prohibit shedding the blood of Jews and Christians who live under Muslim control!

This is just as the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, described them that, "They kill Muslims and spare idol-worshippers." Also, Al-Azariqhah would cut the hand and arm of the thief, while Islam commands cutting the thief´s hand only from the wrist. They also claim that the Ayah,

And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Mohammad) in this worldly life.[2:204], describes Ali bin Abi Talib, and that the Ayah,

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah. [2:207], describes Ibn Muljim, the cursed criminal who killed Ali, may Allah be pleased with him.

Najdah bin Amir was the leader of yet another Khawarij subsect called "An-Najdaat", which established its stronghold in Al-Yamamah. They believe that it is an act of Kufr to consider as Kuffar those followers who could not physically join their forces. They also believe that those who agree with their beliefs will not enter Hell, and if they are punished in Hell, it will be because of their other sins and not because they joined their sect. They also give their loyalty to their followers who fall into major sins but consider insisting on committing minor sins as Kufr. Furthermore, they do not consider those who persist on committing major sins as Kuffar. In addition, they allow shedding the blood of their neighbors as well as their adversaries.

Another sub-sect of Al- Khawarij is As-Safriyyah, followers of Ziyad bin Al-Asfar. This group does not consider as Kuffar those who believe in their way but do not join their ranks. Also, they do not consider the children of their adversaries as Kuffar or that they will abide in Hell forever. They differ, however, on whether those who commit major sins are Kuffar or not. Some of them consider such sinners as Kuffar. Others, on the other hand, disagree, except in the case of those caught committing major sins and are thus punished for these sins by the rulers.Some of them claim that major sins that have prescribed punishment will not cause whoever commits them to become a Kafir, while actions that do not have a prescribed punishments, such as abandoning the obligatory prayer or Az-Zakat, will cause one to become a Kafir. They also allow women to assume leadership positions.

Another Khawarij sub-sect, "Al-Ajaridah", are followers of Al- Karim bin Ajrad. This group disowns their own children before they reach the age of puberty. After the child becomes an adult, they oblige calling him unto Islam and teaching him matters of the religion. They do not allow shedding the blood of Ahlu As- Sunnah except if they meet them in battle. They also consider those who commit major sins as Kuffar.

Ath-Tha´alibah is yet another Khawarij sub-sect. This group was started by Tha´labah bin Mashkan, who used to be a follower of the Ajaridah before he started his own sect. This group later divided into six sects, the first being the followers of Tha´labah himself who persisted on his path. As for those who formed their own sects after they were followers of Ath-Tha´alibah, they include Al- Ma´badiyyah, followers of Ma´bad bin Abdurra´hman, who declare other Tha´alibah as Kuffar and who used to take Az-Zakat due on the possessions of their rich slaves. They also include Al-Akhnasiyyah, followers of Al- Akhnas bin Qays, who differed with Ath-Tha´alibah when they hesitated to call those who might appear to be disbelievers, yet conceal their Islam, as Kuffar. These sects also include followers of Rashid At-Tawsi, who were called Ar-Rashidiyyah. This sect disowned all those who disagree with them. There is also Al-Mukarramiyyah, followers of
Abu Mukarram Al-´Ijli. This group considers those who fall into major sins as Kuffar because they are ignorant about Allah.Again, this group also considers those who disagree with them as Kuffar, and their adversaries from among Ath- Tha´alibah considered them Kuffar in turn. The sixth Tha´alibah sub-sect was called Ash-Shaybaniyyah, followers of Shayban bin Salam. This is the sect which Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, the leader of the Abbasid armies, fought and defeated, killing Shayban and capturing the rest of his followers. This was the end of Ath- Tha´alibah who denied Allah´s Attributes and also resembled Allah with the creation.

Another major sub-sect of Al-Khawarij is the one still known as "Al- Ibadhiyyah", who are the followers of Abdullah bin Ibadh Al-Murri. He permitted Al-Ibadhiyyah to marry women from Ahlu As-Sunnah and accepted the testimony of Ahlu As- Sunnah even against the Ibadhiyyah Themselves because they consider that the general name of Islam still bonds them together.

This group only allowed the shedding the blood of Ahlu As-Sunnah in battle. They fell into confusion when they considered their adversaries as Kuffar (disbelievers), but not Mushrikeen (polytheist).

Al-Ibadhiyyah also divided into six sects.

The first is Al-Yazidiyyah, followers of Yazid bin Anas who claimed that another Prophet will be sent for non-Arabs and that his law will replace Prophet Mohammad´s Law. They also claimed that Arabs who attest that there is no god except Allah and that Mohammad is His Messenger are believers even if they do not actually embrace and abide by Islamic laws. Therefore, according to this false claim, Arab Jews and Christians are considered believers if they only declare the Shahadatayn (the Testimony) with their tongues.

The second sub-sect of Al- Ibadhyyah is known as Al-Hafsiyyah, followers of Al-Hafs bin Abi Al- Miqdam. They claim that belief is merely knowing Allah and that this suffices if one disbelieves in the Prophets, the angels, Paradise, Hell, Resurrection, and Reckoning. They consider those who know Allah to be saved from Shirk even if they commit all types of major sins.

The third Ibadhi sub-sect is known as Al-´Harithiyyah, followers of Al-´Harith bin Yazid. This sect denies Predestination and Allah´s Will and condones acts of worship that are not meant for the sake of Allah. The last three Ibadhi sub-sects are Al- Ibrahimiyyah, Al-Maymoniyyah, and Al-Waqifiyyah.

We have shown how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and we also clarified the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects.

From this short summary of their beliefs and practices, we now know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time.

The beliefs of Al-Khawarij have always been and still pose grave danger to Islam and Muslims.

We ask Allah for protection and safety from the misguided beliefs of Al-Khawarij and their likes, for He is the All-Hearer and the only One Who fulfills the Du´aa´.


The story of Ibn Abbas´s (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) debate against them is in the Mustadrik of Hakam (2/150-152) in an authentic chain and upon the conditions of acceptance of Imam Muslim.

In it is the statement of Ibn Abbas:

أتيتÙ�كم من عند صحابة النÙ'َبيÙ'Ù� صلى الله عليه وسلم من المهاجرين والأنصار، لأبلÙ'Ù�غكم ما يقولون،المخبرون بما يقولون، Ù�عليهم نزل القرآن، وهم أعلمÙ� بالوحي منكم، ÙˆÙ�يهم أنزل، وليس Ù�يكم منهم أحد

"I come to you from the Companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from amongst the Muhajireen and Ansaar to inform you of what they say. They were present when the Qur´an was revealed, and they are more knowledgeable about the revelation than you are and were present at its descending, and not a single one of you is from them. So some of them said: لا تخاصموا قريشاً Do not dispute with a person from the Quraish because

Allah says: بَلÙ' Ù‡Ù�Ù…Ù' Ù‚ÙŽÙˆÙ'Ù…ÙŒ خَصÙ�Ù…Ù�ونَ But they are a quarrelsome people Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) said:

وأتيتÙ� قوماً لم أرَ قوماً قطÙ'Ù� أشدÙ'ÙŽ اجتهاداً منهم، مسهمة وجوههم من السÙ'َهر، كأنÙ'ÙŽ أيديهم وركبهم تثنى عليهم، Ù�مضى من حضر

"I never saw a people striving harder in doing deeds. Their faces were marked with lines from abstaining from sleep. It was as if their hands and knees praised them.

So those who were present proceeded, and some of them said,

لنكلÙ'Ù�منÙ'ÙŽÙ‡ ولننظرنÙ'ÙŽ ما يقول

"By Allah we will speak to him and debate what he says"I asked:

أخبروني ماذا نقمتم على ابن عمÙ'Ù� رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصهره والمهاجرين والأنصار؟

"Why do you have resentment against the cousin of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) his in-laws, the Muhajireen and Ansaar? They said:" (because of) ثلاثاً Three things" I asked: ما هنÙ'ÙŽØŸ "What are they?"

They said: أمÙ'َا إحداهنÙ'ÙŽ Ù�إنÙ'ÙŽÙ‡ حكم الرÙ'Ù�جالَ Ù�ÙŠ أمر الله، "As for the first one it is that he made men arbitrators in the matters of Allah. And Allah said:

Ø¥Ù�Ù†Ù� الÙ'Ø­Ù�ÙƒÙ'Ù…Ù� Ø¥Ù�لاÙ'ÙŽ Ù„Ù�Ù„Ù'Ù‡Ù� Verily! The decision rests only with Allah [Yusuf: 67]

I said: هذه واحدة " This is one" And they said:

ولَم يسÙ'ب ولَم يغنَم، Ù�لئن كان الذي قاتل ÙƒÙ�Ù'َاراً لقد حلÙ'ÙŽ سبيÙ�هم وغنيمتهم،

ولئن كانوا مؤمنين ما حلÙ'ÙŽ قتالÙ�هم

"As for the other, it is that he fought and did not take captives or booty of war. If the ones being fought are disbelievers, then indeed it is permissible to take them captive and take the booty of war, and if they were believers it would not be permissible to fight them.

I said: هذه ثنتان، Ù�ما الثالثة؟ " That´s two, so what is the third one?"

They said: إنÙ'ÙŽÙ‡ مَحا Ù†Ù�سَه من أمير المؤمنين، Ù�هو أمير الكاÙ�رين "He wiped out the title of `Amir al-Mu´mineen´ for himself, so he is the Amir of the disbelievers."

I said: أعندكم سوى هذا؟ "Do you have anything others than these? They said: حسبنا هذا " This suffices us" So I said to them:

أرأيتم إن قرأت عليكم من كتاب الله ومن سنÙ'ÙŽØ© نبيÙ'Ù�Ù‡ صلى الله عليه وسلم

ما ÙŠÙ�ردÙ'Ù� به قولÙ�كم أتَرضَون؟

"If I read of the Qur´an and Sunnah that which refutes these claims, will you be pleased? They said: نعم! "Yes" So I said:

أمÙ'َا قولكم: حكÙ'ÙŽÙ… الرÙ'Ù�جال Ù�ÙŠ أمر الله، Ù�أنا أقرأ عليكم ما قد رÙ�دÙ'ÙŽ حكمÙ�Ù‡ إلى الرÙ'Ù�جال Ù�ÙŠ ثمن ربع درهم، Ù�ÙŠ أرنب ونحوها من الصيد

As for your statement: `A man has arbitrated in the matter of Allah´, I will read to you what has given the power of arbitration to men concerning a killed rabbit and the likes of that which is hunted which price is worth a quarter of a dirham. Allah says:

:(( يَا Ø£ÙŽÙŠÙ'Ù�هَا الÙ'ÙŽØ°Ù�ينَ آمَنÙ�واÙ' لاَ تَقÙ'تÙ�Ù„Ù�واÙ' الصÙ'ÙŽÙŠÙ'دَ وَأَنتÙ�Ù…Ù' Ø­Ù�رÙ�Ù…ÙŒ ))

إلى قوله: (( ÙŠÙŽØ­Ù'ÙƒÙ�Ù…Ù� بÙ�Ù‡Ù� ذَوَا عَدÙ'Ù„Ù� Ù…Ù'Ù�نكÙ�Ù…Ù' ))ØŒ

O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or 'Umrah), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; [Maidah: 95]

Ù�نشدتكم الله: أحÙ�كم الرÙ'Ù�جال Ù�ÙŠ أرنب ونحوها من الصيد Ø£Ù�ضل أم حكمهم Ù�ÙŠ دمائهم وصلاح ذات بينهم؟!

وأن تعلموا أنÙ'ÙŽ الله لو شاء لَحَكم ولَم ÙŠÙ�صيÙ'Ù�ر ذلك إلى الرÙ'Ù�جال، ÙˆÙ�ÙŠ المرأة وزوجها

I ask you by Allah, is the arbitration of men concerning a rabbit and its like of hunted animals better than their arbitration regarding bloodshed and reconciliation between themselves? And you are aware that if Allah wished he would have decided the matters himself and not left it to men. And concerning a woman and her husband Allah says:

ÙˆÙŽØ¥Ù�Ù†Ù' Ø®Ù�Ù�Ù'تÙ�Ù…Ù' Ø´Ù�قَاقَ بَيÙ'Ù†Ù�Ù‡Ù�مَا Ù�َابÙ'عَثÙ�واÙ' حَكَماً Ù…Ù'Ù�Ù†Ù' Ø£ÙŽÙ‡Ù'Ù„Ù�Ù‡Ù� وَحَكَماً Ù…Ù'Ù�Ù†Ù' Ø£ÙŽÙ‡Ù'Ù„Ù�هَا Ø¥Ù�Ù† ÙŠÙ�رÙ�يدَا Ø¥Ù�صÙ'لاَحاً ÙŠÙ�ÙˆÙŽÙ�Ù'Ù�Ù‚Ù� اللÙ'Ù‡Ù� بَيÙ'Ù†ÙŽÙ‡Ù�مَا

"If you fear separation between them, appoint an arbitrator from his family and from her family; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation" [Nis´aa: 35]

Ù�جعل الله حكم الرÙ'Ù�جال سنة مأمونة، أخَرَجتÙ� من هذه؟

So Allah has made the judgement of men a reliable Sunnah. Have I convinced you on this?" They replied: : نعم! "Yes" (I said to them):

قاتَل ولم يسÙ'ب ولم يغنم، أَتَسبÙ�ون أمÙ'َكم عائشة، ثمÙ'ÙŽ تستحلÙ'Ù�ون منها ما ÙŠÙ�ستحلÙ'Ù� من غيرها؟!

Ù�لئن Ù�علتم لقد ÙƒÙ�رتÙ�Ù…ØŒ وهي أمÙ'Ù�كم، ولئن قلتÙ�Ù…: ليست أمÙ'َنا لقد ÙƒÙ�رتÙ�Ù…

Regarding your saying `You fought them, but did not seize their booty nor capture them,´ Can you capture your Mother 'Aisha then make permissible concerning her what is permissibility concerning other female slaves.

If you say that she can be captured and treated like any of the other female slaves, you have surely committed disbelief, because she is your mother. If you say that `she is not our mother´ than you have also committed disbelief, for Allah says:

النÙ'َبÙ�ÙŠÙ'Ù� Ø£ÙŽÙˆÙ'Ù„ÙŽÙ‰ بÙ�الÙ'Ù…Ù�ؤÙ'Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù�ينَ Ù…Ù�Ù†Ù' Ø£ÙŽÙ†Ù�Ù�سÙ�Ù‡Ù�Ù…Ù' وَأَزÙ'وَاجÙ�Ù‡Ù� Ø£Ù�Ù…Ù'َهَاتÙ�Ù‡Ù�Ù…Ù'

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage). [Ahzab: 6]

Ù�أنتم تدورون بين ضلالَتين، أيÙ'هما صرتÙ�Ù… إليها صرتÙ�Ù… إلى ضلالة، Ù�نظر بعضÙ�هم إلى بعض،

You are thus hovering between two deviations. Whichever one you go towards, you go towards misguidance."

So some of them began to look at each other.I asked: أخرجت� من هذه؟ "Have I convinced you?" They replied: نعم! " Yes" (I said to them):

مَحا اسمَه من أمير المؤمنين، Ù�أنا آتيكم بمَن ترضَون وأريكم، قد سمعتÙ�Ù… أنÙ'ÙŽ النÙ'َبيÙ'ÙŽ صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الحÙ�ديبية كاتَبَ سÙ�هيل بن عمرو وأبا سÙ�يان بن حرب،

�قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأمير المؤمنين

اكتب يا علي: هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد رسول الله، �قال المشركون:

لا والله! لو نعلم أنÙ'ÙŽÙƒ رسول الله ما قاتلناك،

Ù�قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : اللÙ'َهم إنÙ'ÙŽÙƒ تعلمÙ� أنÙ'Ù�ÙŠ رسول الله، اكتب يا علي:

هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد بن عبد الله، �والله لرسول الله خيرٌ من علي،

وما أخرجه من النبوة حين محا ن�سَه

And as for your statement that he wiped out the title of `Amir al- Mu´mineen´ for himself, I will show and bring you proof by one whom you are pleased with. I heard on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, when the treaty was being drafted by Suhail bin Amr and Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) say to the Amir ul Mu´mineen: "Write O´ 'Ali: `This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah´." The Mushrikeen objected to this saying: "No, By Allah, if we believed that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you." Upon this, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: O´ Allah you know that I am the Messenger of Allah. Write O´ Ali `This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad bin Abdullah.´ ...For I swear by Allah that the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is better than Ali, and erasing his title did not remove his

Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him and his Father) said:

: �رجع من القوم أل�ان وق�تل سائر�هم على ضلالة

So (after this), two-thousand of them (the Khawaarij) returned to the truth and the rest of them were killed upon falsehood.


Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said,

�إن عامة ضلال أهل البدع كان بهذا السبب، �إنهم صاروا يحملون كلام الله ورسوله على ما يدعون أنه دال عليه، وليس الأمر كذلك

"Majority of innovations have their roots in misunderstanding of Islaamic texts, for those who established innovations had wrongful perception of the Word of Allaah which they used to back up their innovations."

The scholars say,

من اتباع المتشابهات الأخذ بالمطلقات قبل النظر Ù�ÙŠ مقيÙ'Ù�داتها، أو Ù�ÙŠ العمومات من غير تأمل Ù�ÙŠ مخصÙ'Ù�صاتها، وكذلك العكس بأن يكون النص مقيدًا Ù�ÙŠÙ�طلق، أو خاصًا Ù�ÙŠÙ�عمÙ' بالرأي من غير دليل سواه، Ù�إن هذا المسلك رميٌ Ù�ÙŠ عماية واتباع للهوى بالدليل، وحينئذ Ù�الخلل Ù�ÙŠ هذه المسالك الاجتهادية يوقع Ù�ÙŠ أخطاء Ù�احشة عقائدية ÙˆÙ�رعية

"It is part of following the ambiguous evidences to take to absolute evidences before looking at its restricted aspects or to take to general rules and disregard its particular aspects like making particularized or restricted evidence a general or unrestricted one or vice versa without any tangible evidences. This may cause grave mistakes.

For instance, the Khawaarij who revolted against `Alee said, "There is no judge save Allaah", misinterpreting the Word of Allaah, "The judgement is but Allaah´s." They thereby gave this verse a wrong meaning.

The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu´tazilite sects.

They center upon the following matters:

(1) Imputing kufr upon `Ali, `Uthmaan and other sahaabah ﻦﻴﻌﻤﺟأ ﻢﻬﻨﻋ ﷲا ﻲﺿر .

(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin.

(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims.

(4) They believe that the Qur´aan is created. However, the Qur´aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel عليه وسلم , directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ). The Qur´aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ).

(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah´s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation.

(6) Like the twelver Shee´ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur´aan and authentic sunnah .

(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins.

(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah inflicts upon those who deserve it.

(9) They speak ill about the scholars الطعن� �ي العلماء See the incident with Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ibn Abbaas, how they treated them, this is the common amongst the mis-guided youths of today, ignorant, foolish in understanding.

The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij.

I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world. The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa´ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the `aqeedah nor the manhaj . We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kufaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik ) ﷲا ﻪﻤﺣر ( are remembered: "Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations ." Related by Imaam Ibn `Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1).

This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds. Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious

And what shows the danger of extremism and deviation from the truth and staying away from what Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama´ah is upon, is the statement of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from the Hadith of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him):

إنÙ'ÙŽ أخوÙ�ÙŽ ما أخاÙ� عليكم رجل قرأ القرآن،

حتى إذا ر�ئيت بهجته عليه وكان ردءاً للإسلام،

انسلخ منه ونبذه وراء ظهره، وسعى على جاره بالسي� ورماه بالشرك،

قلت: يا نبيÙ'ÙŽ الله! أيÙ'Ù�هما أولى بالشرك: الرامي أو المرمي؟ قال: بل الرامي

Indeed what I fear most for you is that a man reads the Qur´an until magnificence is seen upon him and he is a support for Islam and it is withdrawn from him and he throws it behind his back and strives against his neighbor with the sword and he accusing him of shirk. I said O´ Prophet of Allah, which one is more worthy of (the accusation of) shirk, the accuser or the accused? He said: The accuser . [Collected by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Taarikh and Abu Ya´ala and Ibn Hibban and Al-Bazaar. See Sahih Al-Albani 3201]

The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said:

ومَن خرج على أمÙ'َتي يضرب برÙ'َها ÙˆÙ�اجرَها، ولا يتحاش من مؤمنها،

ولا ÙŠÙ�ÙŠ لذي عهد عهدَه،Ù�ليس منÙ'Ù�ÙŠ ولستÙ� منه

"Whoever rebels against my Ummah and fights the righteous and unrighteous of them, does not avoid its believers and does not fulfill his obligation to whom he has a contract, then they are not from me and I am not from them . [Muslim 1848]

Ibn Al-Qayyim said,

نهيÙ� النبيÙ'Ù� عن قتال الأمراء والخروج على الأئمة وإن ظلموا أو جاروا ما أقاموا الصلاة، سدÙ'ًا لذريعة الÙ�سادÙ� العظيم والشرÙ'Ù� الكثير بقتالهم كما هو الواقع، Ù�إنÙ'Ù‡ حصل بسبب قتالهم والخروج عليهم أضعاÙ�Ù� أضعاÙ�Ù� ما هم عليه، والأمÙ'Ø© Ù�ÙŠ بقايا تلك الشرور إلى الآن

"The Prophet forbidden taking arms against the rulers and revolting against them even if they were unjust as long as long as they established prayers. He said this in order to prevent great corruption and evil that could emanate from taking arms against them.

The reality has shown that taking arms and revolting against them had brought harm and evil that that was much greater than their corruption."

While speaking about undesirability of forbidding vices if that could lead to a greater vice he said,

ومن تأمÙ'Ù„ ما جرى على الإسلام Ù�ÙŠ الÙ�Ù�تن الكبار والصÙ'Ù�غار رآها Ù…Ù�Ù† إضاعةÙ� هذا الأصلÙ� وهو إنكار المنكر إذا كان يترتÙ'ب عليه ما هو أنكرÙ� منه، ومÙ�Ù† عدم الصبر على المنكَر،

Ù�ÙŠÙ�طلَب إزالتÙ�ه، Ù�يتولÙ'دÙ� منه ما هو أكبر منه

"Like revolting against kings and rulers, for this is the foundation of all evils and calamities. If one reflects over what happened to Islaam during minor and major crises one will realize that it caused by the negligence of this very principle."

`Umar said,

إنا لا ننتصر على عدوÙ'نا بعددÙ� ولا عدة، وإنما ننتصر بطاعتنا لله ومعصيتهم له، Ù�إن عصينا الله Ù�قد استوينا وإياهم Ù�ÙŠ المعصية، وكان لهم الÙ�ضل علينا

"We do not defeat our enemy through our great numbers and or sophisticated ammunitions, we defeat them through our obedience to Allaah and our enemies´ disobedience to Him. But when we disobey Allaah, we become like them in sins and they will then defeat us."


Question: As you know, there are a number of ahaadeeth concerning how Muslims are to deal with the Muslim rulers, including the sinful and oppressive rulers.How would you respond to the one who claims that these ahaadeeth are concerning the khaleefah of the Muslims, not the various leaders, kings, or prime ministers of today?

The Answer: This Shubuha (misconception) that the Ahaadeeth of obedience to the Rulers are restricted to the general Khaleefah (greater Imaam) is, al-hamdulillah , already answered by the scholars of Islaam. Here are some of their statements:

1- Sh. Al-Islam Ibn Taymeyah ( rahimahullaah) said: "The sunnah is that the Muslims have one Imaam and the rest are his deputies. Suppose, however, the Ummah abandoned this due to a sin from some part of it and incapacity from the rest or for a reason other than that and which led to having number of Imaams, then it is binding upon each Imaam to establish the Hudood (prescribed punishments) and fulfill the rights (of people)." [Majmoo' al- Fataawaa, 35/175-176].

2- Imaam Ash-Shawkaani ( rahimahullaah) said: "In Principle, all Muslims should have one Imaam. However, after the spread of Islam and the expansion of its territories and their remoteness, it is known that in each region there became a ruler or Imaam and so with the rest of the regions, none of them having authority to command and forbid in the other regions... So the presence of various (multiple) Imaams and Rulers is of no harm, and it is binding to obey each one of them after giving him the bay'ah (pledge of allegiance) in the region in which his commands and prohibitions are executed therein. And similarly in the case of the one in charge of another region. And it is not obligatory upon the people of the other regions to obey him, nor to be under his governorship due to the remoteness of the regions..."

Then he said: "You should know this, since it is fitting to the Sharee'ah Foundations, and in full agreement to what is indicated by the evidences. And turn down what is being said in opposition to this, since the difference between the condition of the early Islamic wilaayah (administrative governship) and its state nowadays is clearer than the sun during the day." [Imaam Ash-Shawkaani in As- Sayelul Jarraar, 4/512].

3- Sh. Imaam Muhammad bin 'Abdil Wahaab ( rahimahullaah) said:

"The Imaams from each Madh-hab are unanimous that whoever overtakes a country or countries (seizes power) is entitled to assume the same rulership as the Imaam in ALL affairs. Were it not so, the affairs of this worldly life would not be upright. And for a long time, since before the time of Imaam Ahmad ( rahimahullaah) and until our time, people were not in agreement upon one Imaam, and they have no account of a scholar stating that the validity of (the applicability) of any of the rulings (of sharee'ah) is conditional upon the presence of the Greater Imaam ." [In Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, 7/239].

4- Al-'Allaamah (esteemed scholar) As-San'aani ( rahimahullaah) said in his explanation of the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah ( radiya Allaahu 'anhu), raised to the Prophet ( _ : salllaallaahu 'aleihi was-sallam):

"One who defected from obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims - if he died in that state - would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (i. e. would not die as a Muslim). [Saheeh Muslim, Book 20, # 4555, English Translation] that the "obedience" is the obedience to the Khaleefah upon whom there isagreement, and it seems that what is intended is the khaleefah on any region from the regions, since people were not on agreement on a single khaleefah over the entire Islamic lands since the Abbasid Rule. Rather each region became independent under a ruler running its affairs. And if we carry the hadeeth to apply only to one khaleefah upon whom the Muslims are unanimous then its (the hadeeth) benefit would be diminished.

And that the saying (in the hadeeth) "and separated from the main body of the Muslims," means: separated from the Jamaa'ah who agreed upon an Imaam under whom their body and affairs are organized, their world is united, and their protection from their enemy is achieved."

So, it becomes clear that negating the validity of governership on separate Muslim states leads to evil in the sense that its sets the stage for rebellion against the rulers, and this is forbidden in Islaam even if the ruler is an oppressor as this constitutes the creed of ahl-us-Sunnah .

And Allaah Knows Best.

May Allaah, the Most High, guide me, you, and all Muslims to abide by the way of the Salaf and make us from those who relate the unclear matters to the clear so that they reach that which is clear and pleasing to Allaah.

Shaykh `Alee al-Faqeehee on The Ways Used By the Khawaarij To Incite the Youth

Shaykh `Alee bin Naasir al-Faqeehee explained that what is said regarding the excellence of these miracles (karaamaat), then that is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and he also said:

Verily, the ideology of the Khawaarij which is exemplified in declaring the Islamic societies to be disbelieving (societies) has not ceased to spread, and it has its callers and those who organise for it to be spread.

It is spread using these means by way of the Internet and the callers (to this ideology) spread it amongst the youth (in order) to employ their religious zeal. This is done by spreading what they claim to be miracles of the mujaahideen, and this is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and using their zeal.

It is for this reason that they approach them from the avenue of their religion, and there has come in a hadeeth of Abu Bakr for a hadeeth of `Alee bin Abee Taalib (radiyAllaahu `anhu) in description of the Khawaarij - and Ibn Hajr has related it in the explanation of the hadeeth - "Then Satan will come to them from the avenue of their religion". And this is happening today, because what is spread on the World Wide Web is from unknown (unidentified) people, not known for knowledge and nor for religion.

And all of that (is done) in order to stir up the youth from the angle of their religion. The likes of this is not befitting for an intelligent person in that he turns to an unknown ignoramus (on the Internet), and such a one could be a plant (placed) by certain orientations who have goals that are enmitous to Islaam and which are not openly announced to the people.

And when we notify the youth of the likes of this (affair), we do not (at the same time) reject the miracles of the Awliyaa (pious friends of Allaah), rather these affairs are established and they are from the creed of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah.

And we do not also reject what Islaam and the Muslims are subjected to by its enemies. These affairs are well-known, and it is obligatory upon every Muslim to do what he is able towards this. However, Jihaad in the path of Allaah has conditions and rulings, and it is the Scholars and the Jurists of the religion who explain all of that .

Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij

About the Book:

This is a complete translation of the small booklet "Al-Masaa´il-ul-Muntaqaat min Sifaat al-Khawaarij-ul-Ghulaat" [Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij] compiled and prepared by a student of knowledge, `Aadil bin `Alee Al-Furaydaan, and reviewed and examined by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Muhammad bin `Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis.

In this treatise, the author briefly touches upon the definition, history, and characteristics of the Khawaarij, one of the first and most dangerous sects in Islamic history whose effects and ideologies continue to exist up to today and will remain until the Final Hour. The majority of the treatise is dedicated to outlining the major and distinguishing attributes of the Khawaarij, which the author counts at 58.

It is important to study and be aware of these attributes so that one may avoid characterizing himself with them and thus fall into the ranks of the Khawaarij. This is from the perspective of learning evil in order to avoid it. And it is also beneficial since today, the ways and ideologies of the Khawaarij are prevalent, as can be seen in terrorist acts, suicide missions, assassinations and political strife. So by understanding the characteristics of the Khawaarij, the reader will be able to identify the perpetrators of such crimes, acknowledge their remoteness from Islaam and the fact that they are indeed from the extremist Khawaarij.

More Reading Material:

1 - The Takfiris make unlicensed Takfeer of Governments and scholars and call the common-folk to bloody revolution as a way to remove such governments and establish Islaamic Law.
2 - Characteristics of Al-Khawaarij
3 - Khawarij Renewed Indeology.


Messages in this topic (1)
5. Re: MQM and Qadiyanis in Israeli Army
    Posted by: "Khan Arif" ank2000pk
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Appears to be a distorted account by the author of the book as also by Mr. Shahid.
According to the constitution of Pakistan Qadiyanis have been declared
Non-Muslims and are entitled to protection and all rights guaranteed to
minorities. Their condemnation must stop and their places of worship
must not be attacked as some of the misguided extremist Muslims
are harassing Christians, Sikhs and other minorities including Qadiyanis.

As reported in national media MQM condemned attacks on minorities.
There is no news about any proposal to amend constitution to declare
Qadiyanis as Muslims. It appears to be a disinformation campaign against
the ruling alliance.

Arif N. Khan

PS. Please endorse a copy of your comments on my post to

--- On Sat, 5/2/09, Shahid <> wrote:

From: Shahid <>
Subject: [Pakistan Post] MQM and Qadiyanis in Israeli Army
Date: Saturday, May 2, 2009, 8:37 PM



MQM and
Qadiyanis in Israeli Army
By Dr Shahid
The London Post  - 8/1/2008
More Qadiyanis serve in
the Israeli Armed Forces than Pakistan according to a book,
`Israel: A Profile´, by a respected Jewish
Professor I.T Naamani. He stated: `... and the Ahmadi
sect of some 600 people from Pakistan can also serve in the (Israeli)
army...´ To many analysts Qadiaynis are a political issue and have always
been a security problem? In India Qadiyanis have collected and donated thousands
to the Indian Army fund after Kargil.
On 15th February
1987, Pakistani Foreign Minister, Sahibzada Yakub Khan declared in the
National Assembly that there were 328 Qadiyani officers of
different ranks in the Pakistan Armed Forces. According to his report 1,
Lt. General, 5 Brigadiers in the army and 1 similar rank in the Air Force = 6,
Colonial 10 Army, 2 Navy, 3 Air Force= 15, Lt. Colonials 56 Army, 6 Navy, 11 Air
Force = 73, Major 135 Army, 5 Navy, 16 Air Force =156,
 Captain 58 Army, 5 Navy, 14 Air Force = 77, 
Total 328.
Now the question is after 20 years where are
these officers? How far up have they gone? What is their current status in the
armed forces and intelligence agencies? "Qadiyanis were
created for political reasons and also to confuse the Muslims especially on the
matter of `Jihad", said a senior analyst.
 `Give peace to the
Ahmadis if you want peace in Karachi´, in 1995 a very senior Qadiyani leader
said to me while sitting in one of his fully licensed restaurants at
Wilmslow Road, Manchester. It was the time when Benazir Bhutto´s government was
doing `operation clean up´ in Karachi under interior minister Naseerullah
I had an invitation to attend a conference on
Human Rights at the United Nations in this context a close friend took me to see
Mr. Altaf Hussain at his London offices in August 1995. They showed us some
videos about the bad treatment to their workers in Karachi. In the context of
`Jinnahpur conspiracy´ allegations, I suggested Mr Altaf Husain, `don´t say
anything which you cannot take back like Mujeeb-ur- Rehman´s six points´. As
liver damage caused by drinking alcohol and smoking of hashish are irreversible.

Tariq Aziz reportedly Qadiyani relative of
Rehman Malik and former president Musharaf´s National Security Advisor has been
hired for the `track two diplomacy with India´. His rank and salary would be
equivalent to a federal minister. No wonder MQM and PPP are
reportedly planning to move a motion in the parliament to undo the declaration
of Qadiaynis as non Muslims by ZA Bhutto led Parliament on 7th September
On 8th September 2008, Mr Altaf Hussain said,
`a widespread conspiracy against the MQM of sending fax letters and emails to
individuals and to Imam Bargahs and Mosques domestically and internationally
inciting hatred and provocations against Shiite and Ahmadi sects to malign the
image of the MQM and falsely portray it to be against Shiite and Ahmadi sects".

Altaf Hussain prayed for the forgiveness of
Mirza Tahir Ahmad Qadiyani leader, who died in London few of years ago. One
wonders why Altaf did not attend his funeral? As a matter of courtesy one
expects to say condolences provided the other side accept? Sir Zafrullah did not
attend the funeral of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (father of the nation) conducted by a
Sunni Muslim?
Impact magazine wrote: `The National Assembly
(in 1974) would go to remove a long standing but an unnecessary anomaly. The
decision would serve only to formalise the defacto even de jure position. The problem had arisen not because the Muslims in some fit of
orthodoxy or fanaticism wanted to `excommunicate´ any group of people. Its
origin, on the other hand, lay in the assumption by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of
Qadiyan of Messiahship, and prophethood  and as a consequence,
branding those who did not believe in him to be outside the pale of his
The Qadiyani view of
their relationship with Muslims was well summarised by their second
caliph, Mirza Mahmud Ahmad:
worship has been separated from the non -Ahmadis, we are prohibited from giving
our daughters (in marriage) to them and we have been stopped from offering
prayers for their dead. What then left that we can do together? There are two kinds of ties: one religious the other mundane. The
greatest expression of the religious bond is in common worship and in matters
mundane, these are the ties of family and marriage. But then both are forbidden
(haram) to us. If you say that we are permitted to take their daughter (in
marriage), then I would reply that we are allowed to marry the daughters of
Christians as well. If you say why do we Salam (salute) to non- Ahmadis,
then the reply to this is that ... the Prophet (Muhammad) has said Salam to the
Jews... Thus the Promised Messiah (Mirza Ghulam Ahmad) has
separated us, in all possible ways, from the others; and there is no kind of
relationship which is particular to Muslims and we are not forbidden from
(entering into) that", (Kalimatul Fazsl´, by Mirza Mahmud Ahmad in Review
of Religions).

In 1935 that Sir Mohammad Iqbal, a poet
philosopher asked the British Government to declare the Qadiyanis as separate
community just as they done with the Sikhs. Sir Iqbal said, `the Qadiyanis while
pursuing a policy of separation in religion and social matters `, however,
anxious to remain politically with the fold. The Qadiyanis will never take
initiative for separation´, argued Sir Iqbal because their small number (56,000)
according to 1931 census would not entitle them `even to a single seat in any
legislature. The Qadiyanis asked the British Government that, `our rights too
should be recognised like those of Parsees and Christians reported (Al Fadhi
13th November 1946).
"It was common knowledge that Jalaluddin
Qamar, the Ahmedyah Missionary of Rabwah had been serving in
Israel since 1956 when Ch. Muhammad Sharif was called back to Pakistan
from Israel. All Qadiyani missionaries who had been formerly
posted in Israel since 1928 namely J.D Shams, Allah Dita Jalundhari,
Rashid Ahmed Chaughtai, Noor Ahmad and Ch. Sharif lived in
Rabwah after serving in Israel. Their families had mysterious contact channels
when they were in Israel", wrote Bashir Ahmad in `Ahmadiyah Movement:
British Jewish Connection.    
As far as Jewish help and support is
concerned, Mirza Mubarak Ahmad, grandson of the Qadiyani
prophet has himself acknowledged in his book `OUR FOREIGN
MISSIONS´,  PP. 79-80 in the following words: "The Ahmadiyya mission in Israel is situated in Haifa at Mount
Karmal. We have a mosque there, a mission house, a library, a book depot and a
According to latest reports `Altaf Hussain is
receiving instructions from foreign players including Indians and $ millions
from the business community in Karachi´.  He had many meetings
with US diplomat Robin Raphael reportedly. Therefore when Altaf Hussain says,
`LOC should be made permanent border´.
He seemingly follows Indo-US line on Kashmir
according to Milligazette. com, `US Intentions in Kashmir´ by M. Ahmad Kazmi:

"The US policy-makers in the post-cold war
era seem to be increasingly aggressive to implement the Dixon Plan in Kashmir
for attaining ultimate target of having a foothold in the region and to use
Kashmir as their main operations station. Before going into the US activities in
the region it would be useful to understand the broad framework of the Dixon Plan. Named after its author Sir Owen Dixon, who was
the UN representative for India and Pakistan in 1950, the plan envisages a division of Kashmir between India and Pakistan.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru favoured this plan, but it was a non-starter because
Liaquat Ali Khan, the then prime minister of Pakistan, rejected it. The US
policy makers have resurrected this plan in recent years with some refinement.
In the first phase, the idea of recognizing the Line of Control (LOC) as an
international border is being mooted through different quarters".
A senior analyst said, `Altaf Hussain´s
latest filtration with the Qadiyanis is not a coincident? So what is he up to?
Start civil war in Karachi? Cripple the economy? If Altaf Hussain goes down that
route then Government of Pakistan should ask for his extradition, closure of so
called `international secretariat´, international investigation into MQM funds
starting from London, Dubai, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Canada and United
States. Otherwise it will not be possible to provide a safe route to NATO and
allied force´s 80% supplies and 40% fuel delivered in Afghanistan via Karachi
port? United States and allies need to inform the world what are their real
objectives in Afghanistan?´   
(Dr Shahid Qureshi
is senior award wining investigative journalist and writer on security, foreign
policy, and terrorism based in London)

Scans of the Book: `Israel: A
Profile´, by a respected Jewish Professor I.T

  http://www.imagebam com/image/ 00df3934383765

  http://www.imagebam com/image/ 86795d34383766

  http://www.imagebam com/image/ 4e72db34383767

  http://www.imagebam com/image/ 1e6e2d34383768










Messages in this topic (1)
6. Global Pandemic and My Lost Love for TILOTTAMA  MAJUMDAR, the Potent
    Posted by: "palashc biswas" palashcbiswas
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

 Global Pandemic and My Lost Love for TILOTTAMA  MAJUMDAR, the Potential Novelist!
Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams: Chapter 219
Palash Biswas

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DofaDofah (18 hours ago) Show Hide
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I never thought that a black man will become president of the US. I thought to myself - Yeah when pigs fly! Well, 100 days in Obama's presidency - SWINE FLU.
2xtream (1 day ago) Show Hide
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This is about the scare tactic. If the government can scare enough people into thinking this is a problem they will make sure they get one. The option they are ready to use is Martial Law. This is where you lose your constitutional rights and they will force the FLU SHOT on you. Yup it's all ready planed. Take the shot or Pay $250,000 U.S. Dollar Fine. Yes this is true as well. Our Government with Forced Vaccinations. Hmmm.. This is stinking real bad now!
exacerbatedtaboo (1 day ago) Show Hide
 0 Marked as spam
Oh yeah...And my original question. If you "Expect" something doesn't that mean you have a certainty that something is supposed to be there. How can they make such a claim? This is ridiculous.
exacerbatedtaboo (1 day ago) Show Hide
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Over 36000 people die in the US every year from the regular flu alone and over 400000 are hospitalized every year in America according to the CDC. Someone dies in Africa every 7 seconds, that's 30000 people every day in Africa ALONE. More people will die in the next 24 hours from car accidents then the death toll of this flu combined. This isn't the first time they have tried to scare us with the flu. More people die each year from alcohol and tobacco use than this flu. Calm down everyone
AquarianRising (1 day ago) Show Hide
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Nostradamus predicted the swine flu ...
ZachCraft (1 day ago) Show Hide
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Shut the fuck up
LilBMANUTD7CRONALDO (1 day ago) Show Hide
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1:15, i like her shes smart, pll are getting sick of this,( i mean the media thing of the swine flu)
accountability4all (1 day ago) Show Hide
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i went out today and many people were coughing, it seems to be moving slowly. don't trust the media observe for yourself
LilBMANUTD7CRONALDO (1 day ago) Show Hide
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im so angry of thhese mexicans, first its illegal immigration now its this! they are trying to take over this country! they are rly pushing our buttons
billuvill (1 day ago) Show Hide
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do you know what's the major headline going to be in 50 years?

"International incident at Canadian and Mexican border"
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    1. News results for Global Pandemic

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Searches related to: Global Pandemic
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The World Health Organization raised its six-tier alert to 5, the second-highest, and said a pandemic declaration may come soon. It urged countries to make final preparations to deal with a virus that may sweep across the globe. The WHO has confirmed 154 cases in nine countries, and hundreds of people are being tested for the virus from Australia to New York. Eight of those known to have had swine flu have died, though many more may be carrying the virus and not getting seriously ill, the WHO said. The case in Spain may signal that the disease is being transmitted easily outside of Mexico, where the outbreak began, officials said.

Global PANDEMIC Warning is GENUINE, we realise it very well! It is as genuine as the THREATS of Global Warming, Deforestation, Pollution, Changing Climate and Weather, Global DROUGHT, Food Insecurity, Stravation, Recession, Job Loss, Feudalism, Caste system, Manusmriti ZIONIST Apartheid hegemony and the Illuminati, Ethnic Cleasning of Aboriginal Indigenous minority Communities, displacement, Exodus and world wide Refugee and Immigration Problems, Neo Fascism Neo Nazism and Us CORPORATE Imperialism RESULTANT in War agianst Terror,CLASH of Civilisation, Misinformation by Media and the Mind Control and Brain washing, Mass Destruction in War, Civil War and deindustrialisation, MONOPOLISTIC AGGRESSION against the nature and Nature associated People!

Most of the CALAMITIES are MAN Made! Including the LATEST, the GLOBAL PANDEMIC!

Even United states of america to stop the PANDEMIC Infliction!

How do we stop the INFLUX in this divided Bleeding geopolitics turned into a WAR ZONE of Mass Destruction Infinite!

BENGAL debates these ISSUES as Bengali Intelligentsia is VERTICALLY divided while SUBALTERN Studies and People have NO SPACE.

We must DIOGNIZE the VIRUS LOCALLY at first, specifically in bengal and India.

I have opted to use bengali post Modern Novel to understand the INFLUX and Infliction!
TILOTTAMA Majumdar is a young beautiful lady from North Bengal whom I LOVED most as an EMERGING Powerful potential Bengali Novelist.
 I loved another young lady MANDALRANTA SEN!
 Mandakranta attrected me in poetry as well as prose with her DICTION and Vision despite Personality Disorder.
While Tilottama with her SOCIAL REALISM wit Cruel Most DETAILS!
Both the ladies DISAPPOINTED me very soon and I could never trace a bit of SELINA HUSSAIN, Mahashweta devi, Ashapurna Debi or any one else.

Mahasweta Devi is widely acknowledged as one of India's foremost writers. Her trenchant, powerful, satiric fiction has won her recognition in the form of the Sahitya Akademi and Jnanpith awards, amongst several other literary honors. She was also awarded the Padmasree for her activist work amongst dispossessed tribal communities.
While BASUDHARA, Tillotama`s novel was being published in DESH as a popular serial, I was quite taken aback with the DETAILS and AETHETIC sense. Tremendous Power and Observation  was quite reminiscent of my all time favourites like Akhtarazzuman Ilius and Sayadat Hasan Manto.

1-15 June
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Basudhara / Tilottama Majumdar.-- Kolkata: Ananda. Publishers, 2002. 410p.; 24cm. ISBN : 81-7756-278-9. B 891.443 MAJ-b B172697. 15 Majumdar, Tilottama ... - Similar pages -
Not so later, I was disappointed with her ploys with Myth, Legend, superstition and Ritual which manipulated the reality! Latest Best Seller writer Tilottama Majumdar dealt with Naxal Movement in BASUDHARA and RAJPAT making an EXACT XXX Cocktail of SEX and Revolution! ...

Tilottama was dealing Naxal Movement as out and out an ANRCHY, which is not TRUE.

It was as far as a HATE DOCUMENTATION as the Book written by RUNU GUHA NIYOGI, AAMI SADA AAMI KALO, justifying the STATE VIOLENCE against Agrarian Insurrection Maoist in Bengal, led by Indigenous Aboriginal and Minority peasants which is always described a ROMANTI MIDDLE CLASS Adventure as GODARD trerated it in La CHINOWAS!

I lost my love for Tillottama very soon, SORRY!

Mandakranta joined the Ruling Party as the Pro Industrialisation Intellectual and lost her way.

While ABUL BASHAR wrote AGNI BALAKA on naxalite movement focusing Murshidabad Peasantry and the Minorities, I considered it as a better work than Mahashweta Di`s HAZAR CHURASEER MAA.

What happend?

We know very well where Mahashweta Di stands like a ROCK so SOLID and where has ABUL BASHAR lost with all his DICTION, Observation and Aeshetics!

I have dared to term the NOVELS of one amongst All Time Greats tara Shankar Bandopaddhyaya as DOCUMENTATION of hatred. He did the asame thing with the details of Aboriginal Indigenous life, livelihood and culture as TILLOTTAMA does with better PRECISION!
Her Novel rajpat is an EXCELLENT example of DIVERTION!

She treated the subject of land EROSION, Rural Developmet and rural Politice in Murshidabad and Maldah  with such refined Details , I once again mistaken to fall in Love with her.

Even I had to tour the palces after reading her!

 But the result was the same.


Once again!

Her novel SHAMUKHER KHOL was a DISASTER for serious reading ! In fact, My impression is that most of the novels and short stories, thatare written for Sharodiya, are done over a short period of time,and suffer from a surfeit of commercial considerations.

 Humayun Azad in Bangladesh and most of the ANANDA BAZAR DESH affliated BONDED writers ENTERTAIN with SOCIAL REALISTIC Ploys and SENSESATIONAL Recent developments mixing with PORN, soft or Hard. Joy Goswami did the trick with his poetic Novels with INDIVIDUAL REINCARNATION. But JOY turned REVOLUTIONARY very late and wrote EXCELLENT Poetry on Singur and Nandigram, involving himeself in RESISTANCE. But his novels published in DESH SHARADIAYAs are WORSE than any TRASH EROTIC TOOL!

SUNIL GAGOPADHYAYA and SANDIPAN Bandopadhyaya did it excellently. While Sanjib Chattopaddyaya used RELIGION inspite of SEX. But he also used EROTIC Sequences! Shirshendu tkaes SUBALTERN Geopolitics and landscape and uses SUPERNATURAL ELEMENTS to entertain.

Non of these so called mainstream writers deal with SOCIAL REALISM!

SAMARESH MAJUMDAR is the Stunning Example of strategic Commercial marketing of socila Realism. The WORST works on naxalite Movement may be credited to him. But the High Caste bengali readers are well ENTERTAINED by his NAXAL works, specilly the TRILOGY of KALBELA, KAL PURUSH and UTTARADHIKAR!

Tarashankar sided with the RULING Class and he glorified the FEUDAL Class as SHARAT CHANDRA and BANKIM used to do.

We understand.

Manik Bandopaddhyaya lived and wrote amongst the Bases of Indian peasantry in a background like Tebhaga Movement. He wrote EXCELLENT Short Stories. Beautiful novels like PUTUL NACHER ITIKATHA and PADMA NADIR MANJHI!

Manik was the first Novelist in bengal who treated Social realism with materialst Historical analysis. His commitment was undoubted. He believed in marxism and Class struggle.

 But I consider TITAS EKTI NADI as a better novel than PADMA NADEER Manjhi.

But as far as Mahashweta Di and Manik are concerned we may not doubt their INTEGRITY. They loved SUBALTERN life and people. They never engaged themselves in the DOCUMENTATION of hate.

 Both loved and fought for Aboriginal Indigenous Life, Livelihhod, language and culture. But both negated the Ultimate TRUTH in India, the MANUSMRITI APARTHEID hegemony!

Akhtarruzzaaman or Selina Hussain  and even HUMAYUN KABEER do expose the Manusmriti Apartheid hegemony in their works!

I considered Tilottama in the line of Ilius and SELINA as she was going so deep into the Realities of SUBALTERN Life with so much so detail!

I was FOOLED so easily!

If you deduct all those COUPLATION episodes in BASUDHARA and RAJPAT, you will get it.

But Tilottama proved herself a better ALCHEMIST for RESISTANCE SEX Cocktail which kills the TRUTH. She poses to expose the HEGEMONY and recognises the Social realism so naked. Then she engages herself uin Manipulation of TRUTH.

 Even after this, I may not BRAND her as working in the Ruling Camp!

My publisher friends in Mumbai and Delhi, suggested so often to translate TILOTTAMA as well as Madndakranta, but I could not convince myself as they treated SOCIAL Realism in Most NOTORIOUS ways.

Mandakarnta dared to Manipulate the SINGUR and TAPASI MALIK Realities as a part for Marxist Election Campaign!  

How may we love the DARLING Girl so favourite once again?

Tilottama has written som pieces of CRITICISM and I liked it. She is intelligent and understands the reality. But she treats Social realism quite otherwise.

Just see, most of us who had been active since SEVENTIES, we undoubtedly believed in Class Struggle, Revolution and Marxism or Maoism!

 Most of us rejected ambedkarite Ideology and forgot the greatest Curse of Indian society, the CASTE SYSTEM Graded, Apartheid and Manusmriti Hegemony.

We had been BLIND.

But the generation of SEVENTIES was not engaged in hate Documentation or manipulation.

We genuinely believed and aspired in CHANGE and had been ready to get it FIGHTING!

Mahashwetadi and Manik Bandopaddhyaya, though adopted CLass STRUGGLE Commitment but they never glorified the Feudal set up of caste system and Untouchability as Bengali caste Hindu Novelists do since Tarashankar.

 Sunil Gangopaddhya described Goddess KALI as LENGTA SAONTAL MAAGI, NAKED SANTHAL WHORE! He and his clan of naovelists abhore the Aboriginal and Indigenous and Minority People and never try to hide it. SEXIOLOGY is their best tool!


He treated social realism without any Manipulation.

 He did never mix SEX with Reality.

But the DETAILS in Tilottama happen to be STUNNING in Cmparison to DEBESH, PRAFULLA ROY or Atin Bandopadhyaa and even Smaresh Basu.

But ,unfortunately,Tilottama chose to toe the line of SUNIL, ATIN, BUDDHADEB GUHO and ABUL BASHAR and turned her works as Soft PORN.

She is not REPLICATING even TASLIMA NASREEN who has  all the GUTS to sustain herself  as a REBEL and suffer everything whatever comes in the way! So, we still LOVE TASLIMA despite her commercial Professionalism!

I personally never COMPROMISE on social Realism. Hence I would prefer KEYA PATAR NAUKO by Prafulla oy to PURBO PASCHIM by SUNIL and NEEL KANTHO Pakheer Khoje by Atin bandopaddhya!

I would always rate DHODAI CHARIT MANAS as a better work than PATHER Panchali by a master like BIBHUTI BHUSHAN Bandopaddhaya! Then I feel that ARANYAK was a better work by BIBHUTI!

I would not have written on TILOTTAMA. She stimulated with her WISE Writing once again!
After SUCHITRA Bhattacharya, Tilottam captured FRONT PAGE Column in ANANDA BAZAR PATRIKA and PRECISELY dealt with the Great INTELLIGENTSIA DIVIDE!

Tilottama is JUSTIFIED while she writes that the CONCEPT CHANGE should relate to a DEFINITE PARTY as far as ELECTION is concerned. The Intellectual RHETORIC is UNWANTED. I AGREE!
I have already written about her power to OBSERVE and WRITE all about SOCIAL REALISM with CRUELEST PRECISION!

Tilottama has proved her POWER again as he wrote that the INTELLIGENTSIA clubbed with the RULING MARXIST HEGEMONY and those posing NEUTRAL had always been SILENT and DETACHED against GENOCIDE CULTURE!


 I hope that some day you would recognise your POWER and chose the SUBALTERN LINE of SOCIAL REALISM to become a MAXIM GORKY or VICTOR HUGO or at least a PEARL BUCK or CAMUS!


Novelist Tilottama Majumder Talks About Her Philosophy of Writing

  Audio: Interview with Tilottama Majumder
Listen to Audio: Interview with Tilottama Majumder 

Novelist Tilottama Majumder said that her philosophy of writing is to depict the true picture of society and not hide anything.
Vasudhara - A Hindi Book by - Tilottama Majumdar - वसà¥�धारा ... - [ Translate this page ]
Title: Vasudhara, Author: Tilottama Majumdar, Hindi Title: वस�धारा, Hindi Author: तिलोत�तमा मजूमदार, Language: Hindi, ... - 61k - Cached - Similar pages -
Vasudhara (BENGALI) by Tilottama Majumdar
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Fair Commodity: Empowered With Inherent Loss
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"It is all of humanity that is under threat during a pandemic," Margaret Chan, WHO director-general, said at a news conference in Geneva yesterday. "The biggest question right now is this: How severe will the pandemic be? All countries should immediately now activate their pandemic plans."
Batches of seed virus are being developed for potential vaccine production, according to WHO, the UN health agency in Geneva. Paris-based Sanofi-Aventis SA, Baxter International Inc. and GlaxoSmithKline Plc are talking with world health authorities about how to produce a vaccine.
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Baxter will receive a sample of the swine flu virus "in the next couple days," Chris Bona, a spokesman for the Deerfield, Illinois, company, said yesterday.
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Today, a Swiss hospital said a patient tested positive for swine flu, the first confirmed case in Switzerland. In Mexico, where the toll is highest, 159 people may have died from the malady, according to government officials, with eight confirmed by laboratory tests.
U.S. Cases
Ninety-four cases were reported in 11 U.S. states, with one confirmed death, and New York City officials said they suspected hundreds were infected. The WHO´s statistics, which lag behind those reported by national and local agencies, showed confirmed cases in the U.S., Mexico, Canada, Austria, Germany, Israel, Spain, the U.K. and New Zealand.
Disease trackers are trying to determine whether the new H1N1 influenza strain is spreading efficiently in Spain, said Dick Thompson, a spokesman for the WHO in Geneva. The agency needs evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission outside North America to declare the outbreak has become a pandemic.
Among the 10 cases in Spain, nine involve people who had traveled to Mexico, he said today. "The tenth confirmed to us that there´s some community transmission beginning," he said. "The virus is becoming established in another area. It´s this new single case that is especially worrying."
The last pandemic, 41 years ago, killed 1 million people and was mild compared with the global outbreak of 1918, which may have killed as many as 50 million.
`Preemptive´ Measure
President Barack Obama asked Congress for $1.5 billion to battle an outbreak, and said parents should plan for school closings. Texas Governor Rick Perry declared a disaster, a "preemptive" measure to facilitate emergency preparations and seek federal reimbursement. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency.
"Every American should know that their entire government is taking the utmost precautions and preparations," Obama said on a televised news conference last night. "This is a cause for deep concern, but not panic."
Swine flu infections in people aren´t related to exposure to the animals, and properly prepared pork is safe to eat, said Keiji Fukuda, WHO assistant director-general for health security and environment. The disease, spreading like the seasonal flu, is "unlikely" to stop, Fukuda said.
Mexico Severity
"It´s clear that deaths and serious illnesses can occur in other countries, but more are occurring in Mexico," Fukuda told reporters yesterday in Geneva. "We don´t know the reason for that right now."
The genetic strains around the world that have been tested are "remarkably consistent and remarkably similar to each other," he said. The three main seasonal flu strains -- H3N2, H1N1 and type-B -- cause 250,000 to 500,000 deaths a year globally, according to the WHO.
Scientists are trying to determine why swine flu, a respiratory disease caused by a type-A influenza virus, has been more severe in Mexico. The new flu results in symptoms similar to those of seasonal influenza, including fever and coughing, and may also cause nausea and vomiting, according to the CDC. It appears to be causing more diarrhea than seasonal flu, WHO said.
Hospitalizations and Deaths
The U.S. can expect more hospitalizations and deaths, Sebelius said yesterday in her first press conference after being confirmed secretary of Health and Human Services. Hand- washing and hygiene are among the most effective ways to control the outbreak, she said.
The first death in U.S. was a 22-month-old boy from Mexico City who was brought to Texas Children´s Hospital in Houston last weekend and died April 27, the state health department said yesterday in a statement. The boy had "several underlying health problems," the statement said.
A Marine is recovering after being tested for the illness, and another 37 Marines are being "watched and tested" at a base in 29 Palms, California, Marine Corps Commandant General James Conway said at the Pentagon yesterday. The base, with 15,000 personnel, is located in the desert east of Los Angeles.
Three adults in Maine were confirmed as having the H1N1 swine flu virus, according to a release from Governor John E. Baldacci´s office, making it the 11th U.S. state with such cases.
`Level of Calmness´
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WHO raised the level on its current pandemic alert system, adopted in 2005, twice this week. It had been at 3 since 2007, when it was elevated for an outbreak of avian flu.
A stage 5 warning is "a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent" with little time left for preparation, according to the WHO Web site. It´s based on the determination that the disease is established in communities in two countries in the same WHO region.
A pandemic is an unexpected outbreak of a new contagious disease that spreads from person to person across multiple borders. In such cases, almost no one has natural immunity.
"We think that we are in the process of moving toward" phase 6, Fukuda said. "I think at this point it is possible that we will move to seeing established transmission in other countries relatively quickly."
Stage Six
"We have been preparing all along as if this is going to stage 6," Janet Napolitano, U.S. Homeland Security secretary, said yesterday at a news conference in Washington. "Our preparations are for a situation in which this does become a full-fledged pandemic."
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French Health Minister Roselyne Bachelot told reporters she would ask European transport ministers to suspend flights to Mexico.
No Travel Limits
WHO doesn´t recommend travel restrictions and said the focus should be on mitigating the outbreak.
U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid urged calm. He said a vaccine will probably be developed by the time next flu season starts in North America.
If a vaccine is needed, "the goal is to have one ready by September," said U.S. Representative Peter King, a New York Republican.
An experimental vaccine for swine flu may be tested in people within a couple of months, according to Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Reference strains for the virus have been distributed and a pre-planned development process is under way, Fauci said at a press conference today in Washington.
Production of influenza vaccine for seasonal outbreaks, which U.S. health officials have said is ineffective against the new flu, should continue, Fukuda said.
Emergency Authorizations
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration signed emergency authorizations April 27 that will permit the CDC to use an unapproved lab test for swine flu and more dosing options than currently recommended for influenza treatments Tamiflu, sold by Swiss drugmaker Roche Holding AG, and Relenza, from Glaxo.
Australia is testing 128 passengers with flu symptoms and has taken steps to prepare for an outbreak, such as tightening quarantine rules. The country also upgraded its travel warning for Mexico, urging people not to visit the Latin American nation.
New Zealand confirmed 14 cases of swine flu as of April 29, the only definite infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Singapore today upgraded its disease outbreak alert to "orange" from "yellow," saying it will quarantine people with a recent history of travel to Mexico and tighten infection control measures at hospitals.
Egypt ordered the slaughter of as many as 400,000 pigs. South Korea is also suspending imports of live hogs from North America, while China, the world´s top pork consumer, banned imports of swine products from Mexico and parts of the U.S. Indonesia said April 27 it will destroy all imported pork and swine products and fumigate agricultural goods bought from Canada, the U.S. and Mexico as a precaution.

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Bengal: At least 3 dead, 64% turnout The Statesman
Two injured in landmine blast in Purulia on polling day Little About
Times of India  - Indopia
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Left saved India from getting 'ruined': Sharad Yadav
Times of India - ‎3 hours ago‎
Taking strong exception to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh attacking the Left Front government in West Bengal for "committing many mistakes", Yadav said the ...

Earthtimes (press release)
CPI(M) responsible for Nano pullout: Advani
Hindu - ‎Apr 29, 2009‎
Comparing the situation in West Bengal with Gjarat's Sanand where Tata motors is now setting up the small car plant, Mr. Advani said: "There is no problem ...
Video: Playing the communal card in India's poll - 30 Apr 09 Al Jazeera
`Nano' in Gujarat due to faulty policies of Bengal's Left Front ...
Sonia still dominates government decision-making: Advani Press Trust of India  - Hindustan Times
all 410 news articles »

Indian Express
Low Voter Turnout in Third Phase Elections; 50% Polling recorded
BreakingNewsOnline. - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
West Bengal recorded the highest polling with 64%. 57% voters exercised their franchise in Karnataka. Other states such as Gujarat, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh ...
107 constituencies go to polls today Sify
Nearly 50 percent polling in third phase Sify
all 69 news articles »
Tribals in West Bengal boycott polling
Sify - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
Kolkata: Thousands of tribals in West Bengal boycotted the Lok Sabha polls and vented ire on Thursday demanding development in their respective regions. ...

Fresh News
Dull polling in other states
Deccan Herald - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
The 14 constituencies in West Bengal, where polling was held for the first time this election, recorded the highest turnout of 64 per cent. ...
107 constituencies set for polls today Hindu
3rd Phase Poll: 9 States, 2 UTs, 107 Constituencies Newstrack India
Round three Lok Sabha polls held in India amidst incidents of ... Associated Press of Pakistan
Rediff  - Daily News & Analysis
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Swine flu
An imminent pandemic
Apr 30th 2009 | MEXICO CITY, NEW YORK
The World Health Organisation raises its warning of a global pandemic of swine flu

BY THE morning of Thursday April 30th 2,500 Mexicans were known to have symptoms that looked like the result of a new strain of influenza, and more than 170 had died, though only eight of the dead were confirmed carriers of the new virus. That virus has now turned up in 12 other countries on four continents and the deaths have begun beyond Mexico´s borders, starting with a baby in Texas. This could be the beginning of an influenza pandemic.
On Wednesday the World Health Organisation (WHO) promoted the new disease to level five of its six-level pandemic alert. Some countries have built up stocks of antiviral drugs. Luckily, they seem to work against the new strain. Vigilance at borders is being redoubled. China and Russia have started quarantining visitors with suspicious symptoms. Asian airports have dusted off heat-sensing equipment they had installed after earlier scares caused by cases of avian flu and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), to detect sick incoming passengers. 
Could the new virus (a strain of the type of flu virus known as H1N1, H1 and N1 being the abbreviations for two of the virus´s characteristic proteins) be a dangerous pandemic in the making? Seasonal influenza comes and goes with the virus evolving slightly from one winter to the next. But every so often a truly new influenza virus emerges, to which few humans have immunity. The resulting global wave of infections is called a pandemic.
What makes influenza different is that it is so easy to catch. Seasonal influenza is one of the top ten causes of death in America, and in less developed countries the toll is higher. Influenza viruses are also astonishingly mutable. Their genetic make-up often changes by mistake when the cells they infect churn out new virus particles. On top of that, if an animal or human is infected with more than one strain at the same time, those strains may swap genes. Most such novelties will be evolutionary failures, but occasionally one will prosper and, because it is so new, its hosts´ immune systems will be unprepared for it. The result is a potentially pandemic virus.
That deaths from the new virus have mostly been confined to Mexico is probably a consequence of its having appeared there first and spread, under cover of normal seasonal flu, without anyone noticing. The suspected Mexican cases would then be the tip of an iceberg, and those who have died were just especially vulnerable or simply not treated as rapidly and effectively as they might have been in a richer country. It is also possible that there is something unique about Mexico, such as that those who died were infected with another virus which interacts lethally with the new one. Or a secondary and more lethal mutation might have emerged recently. That would be a serious problem for the rest of the world, as well as Mexico.
People worry about a new influenza pandemic for a 90-year-old reason. In 1918 and 1919 a pandemic known as "Spanish flu" (though it did not start in Spain) killed between 50m and 100m. Other influenza pandemics in 1889, 1957 and 1968 were milder. But even the most recent of these is reckoned to have killed at least 1m. A study published in the Lancet in 2006 used data from Spanish flu to predict that a modern pandemic of equivalent virulence would kill 62m people, with 96% of those deaths in low- and middle-income countries.
Even if the new virus is as virulent as the one that caused Spanish flu, a reason for hoping it will not cause so many deaths is that by good chance it is susceptible to certain antiviral drugs, including Tamiflu. But there is little hope of having enough antiviral treatments for all who would need them if a pandemic struck. What is more, if there were a pandemic it would be only a matter of time before a drug-resistant mutation of the virus emerged.
So how should governments prepare? Thankfully, prodding by the WHO and lessons from SARS and avian flu have caused governments to strengthen their disease-surveillance systems, improve communications between their health ministries and co-ordinate their stockpiling of drugs.
It is also time to begin work on a vaccine. The snag is that the world´s capacity to create a vaccine against pandemic influenza is based on the smaller amounts needed to fight seasonal flu. Both more, and more effective, vaccines will be needed. Some big vaccine-makers are bolstering the conventional approach with adjuvants. These are catalysts added to vaccines to improve their efficacy and reduce the amount of active ingredients required.
However, Peter Dunnil, a biochemical engineer at University College, London, says that, even under the most optimistic calculations, and taking adjuvants into account, today´s global vaccine-making capabilities would cover less than 10% of the world´s population. Furthermore, only nine countries-mostly in Europe-have enough indigenous capacity to supply their own people. Even the United States is not self-sufficient.
It is possible, though, that new technology will come to the rescue. Gregory Poland of the Mayo Clinic, an American hospital chain, argues that thanks to SARS, bird flu and fears about bioterrorism, work has been undertaken on a range of new incubation and manufacturing techniques. One example is DNA-based vaccines, which are made in cell cultures, not incubated slowly in eggs. Vocal, an American biotechnology firm, has shown in early tests that its DNA vaccine for potentially pandemic influenzas, such as strains of H5N1, is safe and effective, and it claims the technology can be scaled up easily.
If this swine flu is the next deadly pandemic, the world will curse itself for not being fully prepared. But it should not forget how much has been done in the past five years. Besides national and global stockpiles of antiviral drugs, medical equipment and financial resources, many countries and even businesses have developed plans for the outbreak of a pandemic.
No sustained virus spread outside North America yet, says WHO
France24 - ‎27 minutes ago‎
A full blown global pandemic could be declared if the new A(H1N1) influenza virus managed to spread within countries on a continent other than the Americas, ...

New York Times
No such thing as a local outbreak
Austin American-Statesman - ‎51 minutes ago‎
Though global pandemics are as old as history itself, diseases and the people who carry them have never been able to move so far, so fast. ...
Video: Swine Flu Outbreak Appears to Be Less Ominous The Associated Press
The revenge of the swine
Tests on probable Irish flu case inconclusive
Toronto Star  - Bloomberg
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Brisbane Times
Swine flu undermines economic hopes
Brisbane Times - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
... the World Health Organisation upped the alert on swine flu to level five on a scale of one to six yesterday, signalling a global pandemic is "imminent". ...
Airport flu scanners as global health alert increases Radio Australia News
Watch Flu Outbreak, But Don't Overreact International Business Times Australia
Price of globalisation The Australian  -
all 861 news articles »
100 years on: As H1N1 fear grips the planet we look at the killer ...
Glasgow Daily Record - ‎5 hours ago‎
In Scotland, the public hardly had a clue as to the global scale of the flu pandemic, although they soon realised when local schools were closed. ...
"First probable cases of swine flu in state reported" Seattle Post Intelligencer
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Global pandemic by any other name
Financial Times - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
Sir, Clive Cookson seems to argue in favour of naming flu pandemics after their geographical origins ("A pig of a job in naming this global scare", ...
UN warns of possible new influenza pandemic
Hindu - ‎Apr 27, 2009‎
Ban said he will remain in close consultations with officials around the world, adding: ``If we are indeed facing a pandemic, we need to demonstrate global ...
Current global economic governance inadequate to meet current ... Xinhua
Global crisis has exposed flaws in intl economic system: Ban Press Trust of India
Poor states may need aid for swine flu -un's Ban Reuters
AHN  - Xinhua
all 99 news articles »

World News
Swine flu: Govt launches hunt for 2000 fliers from Mexico
Times of India - ‎21 hours ago‎
... the H1N1 virus outbreak has now been confirmed in 11 countries and is being viewed as having the potential to cause a global pandemic. ...
India Ups Tamiflu Stock Amidst Global Swine Flu Scare Bernama
all 26 news articles »हिंदी में
RP braces for global pandemic - ‎Apr 30, 2009‎
Now that we've launched our VDO service, we'd like to get your feedback so that we could further improve it. How would you rate the loading ...

Scientists in global race to turn swine flu virus into a vaccine - ‎Apr 28, 2009‎
The contract is agreed in advance to avoid tendering delays in the event of a global pandemic. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, ...
Video: Swine Flu Vaccine in the Works The Associated Press
Drug companies face vaccine dilemma Swissinfo
vaccine supply could be limited Reuters  - New York Times
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o Dewana, Khoimala and the Holy Banyan Tree
In this masterful and deeply sensitive tale, Mahasweta Devi once again interweaves a social tapestry and the detail of human lives, crating a powerful tale of love, longing and passion set in time when the British are beginning to consolidate their hold on Bengal.

o Romtha
A beautiful tale of passion, vengeance and the overwhelming hunger for life.

o Bait - Four Stories
Unlike most of her works, which focus on tribals and the rural dispossessed, the four stories in this collection are located in the urban and suburban underworld, and form an unusual segment of Mahasweta Devi´s oeuvre.

o In the Name of the Mother - Four Stories
The stories in this volume are linked by a common thread: the idea of the mother. They represent a range of responses to the concept of the maternal, exposing how the traditional deification of motherhood in India often conceals a collective exploitation and attempt to restrict women to their socially prescribed roles.

o Breast stories
Translated from original Bengali by critic and scholar Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, this cluster of short fiction has a common motif: the breast. The breast, as the translator points out in her introduction, is far more than a symbol in these stories. It becomes the means of a harsh indictment of an exploitative social system. In 'Draupadi', the protagonist, Dopdi Mejhen, is a tribal revolutionary, who, arrested and gang-raped in custody, turns the terrible wounds of her breast into a counter-offensive.

o Bitter Soil
With an introduction by Mahasweta Devi herself, this book, translated from original Bengali, contains four of her most powerful stories - all set in Palamau.

o Dust on the Road - The Activist Writings of Mahasweta Devi
A collection of her activist prose including most of her articles in English, several Bengali pieces in translation, and editorials from her journal Bortika.In the late 70s, Mahasweta Devi turned her attention to the marginalized tribals and untouchable poor of eastern India. She traveled widely, living with and building an intimate connection with them; and she began to contribute articles to several leading newspapers and journals, drawing on firsthand experience.

o Rudali
Translated from original Bengali, this piece of short fiction was earlier adapted and produced as a play in Hindi and later made into an acclaimed full length feature film. Both the short story and the play are included in this volume, along with an introductory essay that studies how and why the versions are different and what the changes signify, leading to an analysis of how the metamorphosis of Rudali allows us to address the simultaneity and asymmetry of feminist positions in this country today.

o Till Death Do us Part
This volume, spanning over three decades of writing, shows an unusually tender side to Mahasweta Devi, widely known for her satiric prose and biting indictment of societal inequities.

o Old Women - Selected Works of Mahasweta Devi
The two stories in this collection, 'Statue' and 'The Fairy Tale of Mohanpur', are touching , poignant tales, in both of which the protagonists are old women. Mahasweta Devi is at her most tender in her sensitive, delicately drawn portraits of these two old women although her trenchant pen is ruthless as ever in delineating the socio-economic oppression within which they are forced to survive. Though extremely readable as moving stories for the fiction lover, they also yield layers of deeper significance upon closer reading.

o Titu Mir
In this warmly told historical adventure tale, Mahasweta Devi brings history alive in the person of a charismatic hero.

o The Queen of Jhansi
Mahasewta Devi's first book, it traces the history of growing resistance to the British which came to a head with the 1857 uprisings.

o Imaginary Maps
An omnibus of three outstanding works of contemporary Indian fiction translated from original Bengali with a long interview with the author. This collection comprises three novels of Mahasweta Devi. These are:(1) The Hunt, (2) Douloti the Beautiful, and (3) Pteroactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha.

o Bashai Tudu
An original mix of documentary realism and revolutionary fantasy, history and fiction, so characteristic of Mahasweta Devi, the outstanding contemporary Bengali novelist. Translated from Bengali original, Bashai Tudu - a novelette and Draupadi, a short story, evokes a modern myth of a tribal peasant revolutionary.

o Shaalgirah kee Pukar par (HINDI)
Hindi translation of Bangla original by renowned fiction writer known for her activist writings.

o Shri Shriganesh Mahima (HINDI)
Hindi translation of Bangla original by much acclaimed Bengali fiction writer who is famous for her activist writings.

o Neel Chhavi (HINDI)
A Hindi translation of Bangla original by famous Bengali writer known for her activist writings.

o Jangal ke Davedar (HINDI)
Hindi translation of Bangla original by famous Bengali writer acclaimed for her activist writings.

o Eent ke upar Eent - Hindi
A translation in Hindi of Bangla original by famous Bengali writer who has won much acclaim and honor for her activist writings.

o 1084ven ki Maan (HINDI)
Hindi translation of a famous novel from Bangla original by a well-known Bengali writer famous for her activist writings.

o Five Plays
These plays are rooted in history and folk myth as well as in contemporary reality. The socio-economic milieus offers a view of India rarely seen in literature.Five plays are Mother of 1084, Aajir, Urvashi and Johnny, Bayen, Water.

o Our Non-Veg Cow and other Stories
This volume consists of ten favorite stories, selected by the author, and reveals a fresh new face as a writer of delightfully whimsical and funny stories.

These irresistible stories abound with unlikely and colorful characters: a vehemently non-vegetarian cow, the household pet, who wolfs down fried fish and gets

o Mother of 1084
One of the most widely-read works in Bengal, this book offers an insightful exploration of the complex relationship between the personal and the political.

This sensitive novel deals with the psychological and emotional trauma of a mother who awakens one morning to the shattering news that her beloved son is lying

o Krishnadwadashi (HINDI)
Hindi translation of a collection of 3 short stories in Bangla original by famous Bengali writer acclaimed for her activist writings.

o Bania Bahu (HINDI)
A Hindi translation of Bangla original by famous and much acclaimed Bengali writer known for his activist writings.

o 1084ven ki Maan (HINDI)
Hindi translation of a famous novel from Bangla original by a well-known Bengali writer famous for her activist writings.

o The Glory of Sri Sri Ganesh
Considered one of Mahasweta Devi's most important work, this novel written in 1981, appeared shortly after her seminal Chhotti Munda and His Arrows.

o Outcast - Four Stories
Mahasweta Devi's acute and perceptive pen brings to life with a deep empathy and sensitivity life stories of four women, who have one thing in common: the unending class, caste and gender exploitation which makes their lives a relentless struggle for survival.

o The Book of the Hunter
This charming, expansive novel set in sixteenth-century medieval Bengal draws on the life of the great medieval poet Kabikankan Mukundaram Chakrabarti, whose epic poem Abhayamangal, better known as Chandimangal, records the socio-political history of the times.

o Chotti Munda and His Arrow
This volume focuses on the gravest of contemporary threats, not only to individual nations and the civilized world, but to the long-term survival of the human race itself, and explores the complex web of terror that has established itself across the globe.

o Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay
This book depicts the life story of this great novelist, who is like a historiographer, narrating the saga of the rise, fall, continuation and resurrection of a people.

o Agnigarbha (HINDI)
A translation in Hindi of Bangla original by much acclaimed Bangla fiction writer known for her activist writings.

o Chotti Munda aur uska Teer (HINDI)
A Hindi translation of Bangla original by famous and much acclaimed Bengali writer known for her activist writings.

o Ghaharaati Ghatayen (HINDI)
Hindi translation of Bangla original by legendary Bangali writer known for her activist writings.

o Wrong Number and Other Stories
In her inimitable manner, the author brings us face to face with the reality of oppression and repression that haunts our country.

o Kaattil Urimal (TAMIL)
This book is Tamil translation of Mahasweta Devi's Akademi Award winning novel in Bengali, Aranyan Adhikar. It has been translated by S Krishnamoorthy.

o Kadina Davedara (KANNADA)
This book carries Kannada translation of Sahitya Akademi award winning Bengali Novel -Aranyer Adhikar by noted Bengali novelist Mahasweta Devi. It has been translated by G Kumarappa.

o Verrier Elwin-er Adibasi Jagat (BENGALI)
This book carries Bengali translation by Mahasweta Devi and Prithwis Saha of the Akademi-award winning English autobiography entitled The Tribal World of Verrier Elwin.

o The Bell - Stories
This book presents an eclectic collection of stories in reader friendly translations. Fine short fiction from across India, this collection is a sure way of knowing India through her stories.

o Bhiku's Diary
Dip into an unusual mix of unforgettable short fiction - fiction that is sure to enchant, amuse and provoke. This book from the Pocket Plus series presents an eclectic collection of stories in reader friendly translations.

o The Verdict - Stories
This book presents an eclectic collection of stories in reader friendly translations. Fine short fiction from across India, this collection is a sure way of knowing India through her stories.

To Be Or Not To Be, Taslima`s Plea For Indian
Palash Biswas
(contact: c/o Mrs Arati Roy, Gostokanan, Sodepur,
Kolkata-700110, India. Phone:033-25659551r)

Taslima is silent on minority prosecution in
Bangladesh since she wrote Lajjaa. Lajja was the
documentation of the circumstances in which minorities
live in Bangladesh and leave it. The exodus leads to
India always. The infinite refugee influx from the
eastern border of India never stopped and minority
prosecution happens the main cause of exodus from
Self-exiled Bangladeshi author Taslima Nasrin has once
again sought Indian citizenship, facing death threats
from hard-line Islamic groups in her homeland. News
agencies quote Ms. Nasrin as saying that she says her
birth country, Bangladesh, has slammed the door on
her. The Indian news agency also quotes her as saying
she would love to live in India's West Bengal state
because that would help her in her writings. She now
lives in Kolkata with a residential visa extended for
one more year recently.

Government of India faced a quandary after Taslima
Nasreen, the controversial Bangladeshi author, asked
repeatedely for Indian citizenship. The plea was
rejected in 2005. Thoughit is well known that India
stands for democratic freedom, freedom for minorities,
freedom from cast systems and above all freedom for
women. And the Indian intellegentia stands united with

The feminist author fled Bangladesh in 1994 when
Islamic extremists threatened to kill her after she
was quoted as saying the holy Koran should be changed
to give women more rights. After fleeing Bangladesh in
1994, she primarily lived in Europe, collecting some
awards for artistic courage but little peace of mind.

Taslima is a Bangladeshi writer, born in 1962. She has
published poetry, essays, a syndicated newspaper
column, and novels. She has received awards in India
and Bangladesh for her work. She sprang into
international consciousness when her novel, Shame,
which depicts Muslim persecution of Bangladesh's Hindu
minority, brought forth a death threat from Islamic
militants. She had to flee Bangladesh lived in Sweden
for some time, and now lives in France.
August 1999: The Bangladesh Government has banned the
latest novel by feminist writer, Taslima Nasreen on
the grounds that its contents might hurt the existing
social system and religious sentiments of the people.
All copies of the book in Bengali titled "Amar
Meyebela" (My Childhood Days) published last month in
Calcutta have been seized. Amar Meyebela is available
online in Adobe Acrobat PDF format, for those who read
Bengali.Taslims's true struggle for the freedom and
adventures for the equal rights of women in Bangladesh
did earn some basic dignity and respect, for herself
and for the women in Bengal, in general. Ms. Nasrin
has spoken out loud and clear in favor of equal rights
for women and has expressed opposition to the
oppression of non-Islamic minorities in Bangladesh
society. She also mentioned about the oppressive
socio-cultural enviornment during her earlier years.
This, of course, includes the Bengali women´s bitter
experience of sexual exploitation by the brute
Pakistan Muslim soldiers during 1971 Pakistani Islamic
Civil War in East Bengal.

Besides Lajja, her other autobiographical works, "Amar
Meyebela" (My Childhood) and "Utala Hawa" (Torrid
Wind) were also banned. Nasreen, whose book "Ka"
described her alleged affairs with a number of
prominent Bangladeshi figures, earlier said she would
like to settle down in the Indian state of West Bengal
which adjoins Bangladesh and shares the same Bengali
The Bangladesh government has claimed that herbooks
contain anti-Islam sentiments and statements that
could destroy the religious harmony of Bangladesh, if
any such harmony really existed, except in the form of
brute Islamic repression of Hindu community. Taslima
Nasrin, thus, has been living in exile for more than
11 years. Recently, the West Bengal Government in
India also banned the sale, distribution and
collection of her book "Dwikhandito" in November 2003;
(though the Communist West Bengal Government should
not do exactly the same that Islamic Bangladesh
Government has done!). However, the ban was soon
lifted by the High Court in September 2004. Her
attempt to read an anti-war poem entitled "America" to
a large Bengali crowd at Madison Square Garden in NY,
nevertheless, resulted in her being booed off in 2005
by an Islamic Bengladeshi crowd.

On Feb. 17, 2005, Nasreen wrote to Home Minister
Shivraj Patil urging India to grant her citizenship,
saying the country of her birth had "slammed the
doors" on her possible return.The West Bengal Minority
Council then urged Prime Minister Manmohan Singh not
to extend the visa of controversial Bangladeshi writer
Taslima Nasreen and immediately expel her from India.
The Council said in a press release that it had
written to the Prime Minister, Union Home minister
Shivraj Patil, Foreign minister Natwar Singh as well
as Congress president Sonia Gandhi seeking Taslima's
expulsion.It said xerox copies from various books,
including "Dwikhondito" on which a ban has been
imposed by West Bengal government, had been sent to
them "to expose" Taslima's "true intentions and
malicious propaganda against Islam and Muslims".

According to India´s constitutional laws on
citizenship, a foreigner has to have lived in India
for at least 11 years to apply for citizenship.

Reiterating her plea Nasreen, who was present on the
occasion, said, "To live far away from people who
speak the language of my heart, the language in which
I think and write, is almost like death for a creative
writer." She hoped that the Indian government would
see reason in her appeal.

"My love for the language and the people of West
Bengal is all what prompted me to apply for Indian
citizenship," said Nasreen.

"Living in West Bengal would help me in my writings,"
said the 43-year-old author, who has been in Calcutta
during the last month waiting for the Indian
government´s decision.

"My main wish is to live in a city that speaks Bengali
and which is a hospitable place for writers and
artists," said Ms Nasreen yesterday. "For 10 years
Bangladesh has refused me permission to return home.
In that time both of my parents have died. I just want
to be back in an environment where I feel I can

Ms Nasreen, deported from Bangladesh in 1994 after an
Islamist radical outcry over the feminist content of
her novels, said she wanted to live in Calcutta, in
India's state of West Bengal, where she could speak
her native Bengali. In 2002, she was given a one-year
prison term in absentia on charges of making
derogatory comments about Islam in several of her
Taslima is not an activist like Salam Azad, another
Bangladeshi writer who is exiled from the country. But
Azad has become the bone of contention beacause of his
fight for human rights for Bangladesh minorities on
every possible international forum. Azad wrote Ethenic
cleansing and never stopped to highlight the issue.
Taslima is not Shamsur Rahman who was a rigid fighter
for democracy and secularism. Shamsur is no more , but
he is known for his clearcut stand. But he never left
the country. Tasllima is not Humayoon Azad or Shariar
Kabeer, Not even Begam Sufia Kamal or Shaheed Jananee
Jahanara Begum. All these Bangladeshi writers are
democratic and secular and fought agnaist the system
and statepower life long. All of them were subjected
to life threats, attacks. Shamsur escaped, but
Humayoon azad was murdered. Kabeer had been put behind
bar. none of them compromised.But none of these
personalities attacked religion, for which Taslima
Nasrin is best known. But she has transformed in
thebest commercial icon of all struggles against
religious fundamentalism especially when that
obstructs women´s rights. Taslima Nasreen was deported
from Bangladesh because she did not agree to succumb
to homegrown Bangladeshi Mullahs and Italianism. She
fought all her life against Bangladesh´s
fundamentalism. This made all Taslima writing best
seller and it is nothing to do with a social
activists. As Taslima has nothing to do with the
refugees from Bangladesh who cover the content of

In Bangladesh Taslima`s reputation as a creative
writer is not too high.She is never mentioned with
Shamsur Rahman,Shamsul haque, Nirmalendu Gun or
mahadev saha, the prominet poets, Selina Hossain,
Kabeer, Milan, Humayoon Azadand the establised
novelists. But none of the Bangladesh writers , even
the greats like ilius, ahve been so known
internationaly.Not only self exile,but her
controversial stance against Islam and heavy imput of
sensetionalsexual experiences made her Taslima, the
unique writer. Whether it is Islam, Hindus or neo cons
in western nations trying to prohibit abortion, India
need to support the cause for freedom for women. All
religious people worldwide seem to be the enemy of
Taslima. Ms. Nasrin has her share of supporters, but
she is surely no darling within most women's groups or
literary circles. Her work is often derided. Indeed,
many are perturbed that she is linked to a literary
superstar like Rushdie by virtue of mutual

To many, Ms. Nasrin is an indiscreet, all-too-shrill
voice. In West Bengal writers like Tilottama Majumdar
and Sangeeta Bandopadhyay tried to adopt the bold
style of Taslima in their novels. Tilottama`s
Basudhara and sangeeta`s Shankheeni drew attention.
But they could not Taslima anywhere as they seek
liberation of woman in sex only and could not take any
stance against the system, religion and
statepower.Taslima's political capital is not only the
supports from the freethinker and the secularist
Bengalees but also from the liberals in the
sub-continent and from all over the the globe. She
loves to educate equal rights to all Bangladeshi women
and set them free from the repressive and abusive
so-called spiritual bondage.

Recently,the Indian government turned down Taslima
Nasreen´s plea for citizenship but has granted her a
six-month multiple entry visa. She had been denied
residential visa. later it was granted. Now she
demands once again Indian citizenship.

Several personalities from the arts, literature,
education and theatre fields in West Bengal today
appealed to the Centre and the West Bengal Government
that the Bangladeshi writer-in-exile, Taslima Nasreen,
be granted Indian citizenship. If that were difficult,
then she should be allowed the right of residence so
that she could pursueher literary pursuits, they said.
The Centre should take into account her immense
contributions to Bengali literature while considering
her appeal for citizenship. A joint appeal by, among
others, the Magsaysay awardee Mahasweta Devi, the
Bengali litterateurs Sunil Gangapadhyay and Dibyendu
Palit and the economist Amlan Datta, pointed out that
though the Swedish Government had provided Ms. Nasreen
refuge, "to have to live far away from the people who
speak the language of her heart, the language in which
she thinks and writes is like death to a creative
"Taslima Nasreen is a powerful writer of the Bangla
language. To take her literature to greater heights
she needs to live in the land that speaks the
language. Since she has been expelled by the
Bangladeshi government, West Bengal is the only other
place she can let her pen flourish," the appeal,
signed by 79 creative people, said. According to them,
"India's great ethical tradition made it obligatory to
offer shelter to those who need it."
Writers, artists, academicians and actors got together
at a press conference in the evening to urge the Union
government to grant her an Indian citizenship.
"If it is not possible to consider her citizenship
immediately, she must be given a residential permit to
live in the country, where she has the maximum
readership base, and allowed to cultivate her literary
activities," economist Amlan Dutta said.
Meanwhile, Taslima had learnt "of a threat to
eliminate me, something
one does not expect in a democratic country like India
with its respect for the freedom of expression." Ms.
Nasreen also faces a fatwa issued by an imam of a city
mosque, who has reportedly offered a reward of Rs.
50,000 to anyone who smears black paint on her face
and drives her out of the country.Speaking exclusively
to The Hindu , Ms. Nasreen expressed the hope
that "neither this Government nor the people would
encourage such
fanatics.""If I want to fight for humanity I
automatically will have to fight
religious fundamentalism and bigotry as they are
intolerant to human
values and women's emancipation, which is what my
books deal in."She thinks that the fatwa threat could
be part "of a conspiracy by religious zealots against
me to drive me out of the country at a time when I
have sought from the Government an extension of the
residential permit, which expires in August." Her
appeal for Indian
citizenship was rejected last year.

"All religions are hostile to women, without
exception," asserts writer Taslima Nasreen in an
interview on the occasion of the annual world
education week. "They oppose the freedom and the
rights of women, who they oppress with the same claims
that culture, conventions and patriarchal systems do.
I refer to Islam in particular, because it opposes
democracy, human rights and the emancipation of women.
In Islamic countries, the situation is worse than
elsewhere because there is no clear distinction
between religion and the state. The law is rooted in
the religion and that is the source of all evil for
women." Taslima Nasrin
In an exclusive interview with VOA, over phone,
Taslima spoke from Kolkata. She says that she has not
yet been informed of the outcome of her application
although in the newspapers she has seen that the
government of West Bengal has asked the central
government to refuse her an Indian citizenship or
residence. She regrets that the communist government
of West Bengal has given themselves up to a few
fundamentalist muslims and are trying to appease them
for political reasons. Taslima claims that she is not
a self exiled -writer. She was literally dragged out
of Bangladesh and has been forced to stay away from

Taslima does not believe that her situation is the
same as that of the writer of The Satanic Verses
Salman Rushdie. " Though the fundamentalists of Iran
declared a death penalty on Rushdie, he never stayed
in Iran. But I was in Bangladesh when the ban was
imposed on my book," she said.

Many of Ms. Nasrin's writings and pronouncements could
have set off such difficulties -- not the least her
1993 novel "Lajja," a book that depicted a murderous
rampage by Bangladeshi Muslims against the nation's
Hindu minority. But anger turned to outrage only after
Ms. Nasrin was quoted in a Calcutta newspaper as
having commented that "the Koran should be thoroughly
revised." Later, she said she had been misquoted,
though her clarifications then, like ones she offered
Tuesday, were hardly mollification. "Every religion
oppresses women," she said , "I talk about the Koran
because I know this book best. It allows for torture
and other mistreatment, especially for women. And I
despise the Sharia laws. They cannot be changed. They
must be thrown out, abolished. We don't need them."

Taslima wrote,`I lived in one of the poorest countries
in the world. I saw how poverty was glorified by
religion and how the poor are exploited. It is said
the poor are sent to the Earth to prove their strong
faith for Allah in their miserable life. I have not
seen any religious teaching that calls for a cure for
poverty. Instead the rich are supposed to make Allah
happy by giving some help (Mother Teresa's type of
help). The poor should remain poor in society, and
opportunists can use them to buy a ticket for
heaven.So I don't accept Allah, His cruel unholiness.
I have my own conscience, which inspired me to support
a society based on equality and rationality. Religion
is the cause of fanaticism, bloodshed, hatred, racism,
conflict. Humanism can only make people humane and
make the world livable.´

"To the West, Taslima is an even better victim than
Salman Rushdie because she is a woman," said Mahfuz
Anam, the liberal-minded editor of The Daily Star, an
English-language newspaper in Dhaka. Rushdie was for
years under a death sentence issued by Iran's Islamic

"She has gotten global attention, but in Bangladesh
she is not such a heroine. She has not inspired us.
She is not a great writer. We have far more
extraordinary women here who are working with the
villages and protecting women's rights."

The Bengali proverb says, `Kaker mansa kake khai na´
(a crow does not eat flesh of another crow). But it
does. Here is an example. Sayed Shamsul Haq is an
established name in Bangladesh literary world as a
poet, lyrical dramatist and a novelist as well. On the
other hand Ms Taslima Nasrin, a medical doctor turned
into writer, is equally famous, perhaps
internationally more famous than Sayed Haq as a
champion of women´ cause and humanist. Recently
Taslima wrote a novel called `Ka´ in which she made
some remarks with regard to her personal relation with
Sayed Haq that according to Sayed Haq are derogatory
and character assassination. This remarks annoyed Mr.
Sayed Shamsul Haq annoyed and obviously perturbed him
who decided to take the issue to a court for redress
instead of issuing a befitting rejoinder and honest
criticism of her so called novel.

Sayed Haq said to the BBC that she came to know her
in a post wedding dinner of Rudra Muhammad
Shahidullah, a young talented poet ceremony and
Taslima Nasrin, the bride. Mr. Haq said, `Rudra was a
talented poet and was much younger to him in age. He
is no more now. I addressed Taslima as `Bouma´ (a
affectionate term used for daughter in law in Bengali)
from the very first day. She was affectionate to me as
a young poet. But when I felt that she was after fame
and that too had to be earned by any means, I think
from that moment I withdrew my affection from her."
After learning that Sayed Haq has sued against her for
her alleged defamatory remarks about Shamshul Haq, she
reacted by saying that, `but Sayed Haq knew what
really happened on those occasions.´ `I don´t know how
many critics have really read my book who criticized
it. After reading the remarks of the journalists I
have framed such opinion.´ continued feminist writer.
`I have not written anything against any one with any
motive. This book depicts the time when I was in close
touch with those men of celebrities, we were together
then in fighting against fundamentalism. The mullahs
issued fotwas against- that was the time I started
writing against fundamentalism and fundamentalists. I
wrote columns- my books published. Those were the time
when I mix with many writers, poets and men of
cultural activities. Why should I not write about
those important personalities ? What is wrong in it?

In Bangladesh, Islamic feminism came as the natural
reaction to artificially concocted, medieval,
retrogressive and repressive Islamic spiritual
absolutism and ensuing cultural backwardness and
political absolutism in Islamic countries. In this
context, last few years have seen some courageous
Muslim women revolting against their Islamic social
background; Bengladeshi doctor Ms. Taslima Nasrin,
Iranian Ms. Maryam Namazi and Ms. Azam Kamguian, and
the Somali refugee in Netherlands Ms.Ayaan Hirsi
Aliopted for a total revolt; while Ms. Irshad Manji
and the American women Imams, alongside Ms. Asma
Jehangir of Pakistan, Dr. Riffat hasan of the USA, and
the Moroccan feminist Ms. Fatima Merniss going half
the way, are trying to reform the irreformable Islam.

Ms. Taslima Nasrin came to limelight with the
publication of her first Bengali novel "Lajja" (Shame)
and with the publication of this novel started her
long days of difficulties in Bangladesh. She had been
termed a fiery and fire-brand for her passionate
speeches on freedom of women, a human rights worker
for her ceaseless struggle for human rights, a
humanist for her philosophical trends, an atheist
feminist for her disbelief on the religious
mumbo-jumbo against women, a believer in secularism
for her outright support for non-religious moral and
ethical values, and a warrior against the Islamic
fundamentalist, for her personal history of perpetual
struggle against the Islamic fascism.

This 44 years young Lady of Mymensingh Medical College
did not suddenly became a heroine of human rights, she
had been working for quiet sometimes and just not
because some radical anti-religious activists and
freethinkers in Bangladesh and West Bengal boosted her
to a celebrity status. Of course, there are the
diehard secularist and human rights group; those have
been promoting every indivisdal like her with
unequivocal supports. That had every reason to support
her, for she was motivated by the sincrere cause. The
inequalities and injustices against women in
Bangladesh upset her. If any religion keeps women in
slavery and keeps people in ignorance, then one should
not logically accept that religion. Instead of having
irrational blind faith, she preferred to have a
rational logical mind. Thus she became a secular
humanist. To her, as for Tagore, humanity is the
ultimate and she recognized herself as an atheist.

gostokanan, sodepur, kolkata-700110 phone:033-25659551

love in kolkata boi mela 2005
The weather played spoilsport in Kolkata Boi Mela 2005 on Friday and Saturday. The weekend, for which the Kolkattans were so eagerly waiting for, passed into oblivion without registering anything worthwhile, leaving book lovers disappointed, to say the least. They were denied their pounds of unlimited enjoyment. The sudden unseasonal showers caught the organizers unawares. In the midst of happiness suddenly there descended chaos, people ran for cover in the shelters of the temporary book stalls getting drenched to the skin. To add to the mayhem, the electric supply had to be disconnected because, the cables had been exposed due to the sudden and heavy torrential downpour.......
But - the organizers maintained their cool.
A Seminar programmed to be held, in which leading littérateurs of Bengal and France were scheduled to speak, was held - albeit in candle light. Hand it to Kolkattans to never get unnerved.
The Seminar was held in the `Desh´ pavilion - `Desh´ and the woman´s wing of FICCI had arranged for the seminar. Speakers included Sunil Gangopadhaya, Dominic Fernandez, Joy Goswami, Daniel Pennac and Tilottama Majumdar among others. The subject was - `the changes in the concept of love and their reflections on literature´. There was constant interaction between the participants and the audience in which the translators played a vital role. The 76 year old French novelist Dominic Fernandez agreed that the meaning of `love´ has changed dramatically in the last 30 years. `Love´ today means not just a close bond between a man and a woman but also a bond between two persons of the same sex. Sunil Gangopadhaya commented that the meaning of `love´ is changing in India also but here there is still some conservativeness. Joy Goswami said that women today have become much bolder while penning down `love´ related poetry. Tilottama
Majumdar, a representative of modern day writer said that in today´s world, `love´ does not necessarily mean two bodies coming together but something beyond that. Today, love is a bond of mutual trust, interdependence and a search for shelter. To the new generation, friendship has taken on a different meaning.


Little Magazine´s Raag Darbari
By Pankaj Bisht

Pankaj Bisht
Hindi Litterateur
Regional literature stretches like a rainbow beyond the gaze of the English-speaking elite Literature moves in a strange manner. However globalised the world can become, the writer can acquire a global viewpoint only when his (or her) roots are rooted in society: whose concerns are in synthesis with social concerns. This is the stream that strengthens literature, gives it moral courage, and perhaps, helps it move beyond time, makes it transcendental.

We have to understand the literature of Indian languages in this perspective. This is the epoch of intense crisis. New expressions and multiple mediums might not have totally eliminated the essence of literature, but they have certainly limited its role and importance. Literature, since ancient times the principle medium of expression, suddenly became marginalised in the early 20th century; by the time we crossed into the 21st century, the whole world had become visual. Relentless progress of technology shrunk the world and the lifestyle, language and culture of the dominant cultures and societies quickly spread across the world. Surely, these were not satellite footprints but the colonial imprisonment of dominant cultures. The `big language´ roller-coaster might not have succeeded in swallowing the `small languages´, but they were effectively turned insignificant and sidelined, while their literature was made untouchable for the ruling elite,
pushed into the abyss of invisibility.

The value and importance of a language is not determined by the number of people who speak it but by its creative and collective knowledge and the dignity of the people who speak it. This is not a new phenomena in our society: Sanskrit is an example. Big languages like Hindi, Bangla and to a large extent, Chinese, became part of the market, or Baazaaru (Pedestrian) as we say in Hindi; that is, only rudimentary work can be done with this form of the language. This is crucial for the service sector. In this daily, continuous and widespread expansion of the service sector in these times, this is not a minor issue. After all, our affluent society, consumers and foreign tourists, have to routinely deal with domestic servants, cooks, waiters, taxi drivers, or prostitutes and their pimps.

Marginalisation did not restrict itself only to languages; along with them, those collectives also were getting marginalised which were unaware of the so-called `globalised language´. This is the politics of language. In a dialectical sense, this process of marginalisation compelled these languages and cultures to find their inner meanings and strengths. Precisely because they are close to their own social milieu, they now express and represent the realism of the dalit and crushed communities. They express their pain and suffering, and their relentless struggles.

Native Pen: Hindi novelist and storyteller Munshi Premchand painting by hem jyotika
There are innumerable little magazines that are creating a platform for an aesthetic which has been rejected by the big media. And this is not a minuscule platform. It´s the little Hindi magazines that are creating the big writers Let´s start with Hindi. This is because I am aware of this realm, with my constraints. It leaves you with a great deal of amazement, this language, once we look at the context of it being the `biggest Indian language´ as well as the language of the most backward regions. It´s more than extraordinary, the manner in which writers have engaged with their changing villages, the dilemmas of development, the pain and struggles of dalits and women, how they picked up these challenges and made them into an agenda of articulation and hope.

There is no doubt that the `new story movement´ (Nai Kahani) expressed the voice of the emerging middle class, but the essential voice of Hindi literature was somewhere else. That essence was discovered in the identification with the lowest and the lowest-middle classes. That this inheritance was an extension of Munshi Premchand´s tradition was reflected in the entire objectivity of the `kasba´ and village. In the sixth decade of the 20th Century, Phanishwarnath Renu´s Maila Aanchal, Raag Darbari of the seventh decade, and Dharti Dhan Na Apna are the first documentation of the changing villages of `free´ India´s `Hindi Pradesh´. Besides, look at the stories of Shailesh Matiyani: how intimate was his depiction of the displaced people from the villages in the urban slums, and those compelled to live and die on footpaths. You won´t find this kind of intimacy in any other language. Matiyani´s protagonists are beggars, pick-pockets,
lumpens, drop-outs, marginalised characters. Fatedness - the lopsided policies of progress - they were its victims; and yet, their inner life was so full of humanism and faith.

This was the tradition reflected in Jagdamba Prasad Dixit´s novel, Murdaghar, a unique work. Virendra Jain´s novel Doob (Submergence), for the first time, outlines the human dimension of displacement. While Abdul Bismillah Agar, in his novel, Jhini Jhini Bini Chunariya, writes about the weavers of Benaras, Manzoor Ehteshaam´s novel Sookha Bargad is perhaps the most powerful picturisation of Indian Muslim society after Partition. The life and struggle of workers - you can rediscover it in Sanjeev´s work. You can find consumerism and modernity´s dilemmas and dehumanisations with great intimacy in Asghar Wajahat, Uday Prakash, Sanjay Khati, Kshitij Sharma and Sanjay Sahay´s literature.

The poetry of Muktibodh and Dhumil brought to post-Independence India the pessimism and optimism of continuous struggle. They not only gave a new direction to poets of the next generation, they gave a new idiom and agenda to Hindi poetry. If Alok Dhanwa, Manglesh Dabral, Rajesh Joshi and Arun Kamal revealed the revolutionary current of the 1970s, then, surely, they were inspired by Muktibodh and Dhumil. In the contemporary era, Jagdish Chandra Pandey, Mohan Kumar Daheria, Kumar Ambuj, Sunder Chand Thakur, Nilesh Raghuvanshi are documenting life´s despair and clashes.

Another strong current is that of women´s writing across the spectrum of Indian languages. This is significant in the Hindi region because women´s and dalit writing is as vocal and sharp here as is the terrain of dogmatic social reality they inhabit. In the seventh decade itself the modern woman knocks at the door in Mridula Garg´s writings. Prabha Khaitan, with her literary and philosophical writings, has been dismantling the cobwebs of patriarchy; this is a window reopened for the coming generations.

In dalit writing, Om Prakash Valmiki´s autobiography Joothan has acquired the status of a classic. Vimal Thoral, Surajpal Chauhan, Ajay Navriya, among others, in different ways, are expressing the realism of dalit community. Literary magazine Hans is perhaps the only space of its kind where a `75-year-old young man´ is leading a protracted struggle against the retrograde currents of dogmatism, orthodoxy and communalism. The truth is that the pressure of writing in your own language is so intense that there are innumerable little magazines which are creating a platform for an aesthetic which has been rejected by commercial journalism, electronic and print. This is not a minuscule platform. Indeed, it´s the little magazines that are creating the big writers.

Four generations of Hindi writers are running a parallel innings. From Rajendra Yadav´s intervention through thought-provoking writing, to Uday Prakash, Asghar Wajahat, Kshitij Sharma, Manglesh Dabral, Nilesh Raghuvanshi, Ramagya Shashidhar, and refreshingly new literature by Maya Gola - there are so many writers who are comparatively involved in Hindi literature´s `rewardless´ world. Agreed, in Indian language writing there is neither money nor eminence, but let´s not forget about that essence of literature called `creative satisfaction´. The stoic happiness of doing something constructive.

Despite the fact that English has become the language of the ruling elite, literature in other Indian languages is also a form of creative intervention. One name is that of Mahasweta Devi, who has transcended the barriers of language. She is involved with every people´s struggle. The incredible depiction of adivasi life, their daily, epical struggles - you can´t find such incredible writing in entire world literature. There are others too carving a niche: Nabarun Bhattacharya, Subodh Sarkar, Mallika Sengupta, Devesh Rai and Tilottama Majumdar.

In Marathi, Rajan Gavas´s novel Bhandar Bhog is sailing on a high note, while others have nourished non-English literature for years: Vijay Tendulkar, Vidya Karandikar, Sadanand Deshmukh. And let´s not forget that dalit literature in Marathi was a pioneer of radicalism.What is lovely is how even in adivasi language, Santhali, Nirmala Putul is writing the fresh and original poetry of incredible images. Certainly, powerful literature is being born in little languages and dialects, which the `other languages´ and the `English medium society´ is simply not aware of. This literature is lively and brilliant, a reflection of the social and political truth of our times, a moment of multiple hope in the globalised realm of despair and struggle.
Feb 11 , 2006
Kolkata literatureThe universality of Bengali literature was established by Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. This Nobel laureate was born in Calcutta in 1861 and lived till 1941. In these 80 years of his life he established himself as the redoubtable poet, writer, lyricist, composer and artist. His book "Geetanjali" was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1911. His works 'Raktakarabi', 'Rajarshi', 'Gharey Bairey', 'Sesher Kabita', 'Cheleybela' and so on are masterpieces. His musical compositions have become renowned as 'Rabindrasangeet'.

Prior to Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Rishi Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutta, and Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar were the stalwarts of Bengali literature. Rishi Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's novels 'Anandamath', 'Kapalkundala', 'Krishnakanter Will' are immortal works.

Michael Madhusudan Dutta was the pioneer of Bengali drama and blank verse poetry. His dramas 'Sarmistha' and 'Tilottama', and 'Meghnad Badh Kavya' written in blank verse have immortalized this playwright and poet of Kolkata.

After Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Tarashanker Bandopadhyay, Manik Bandopadhyay, and Bibhuti Bhusan Bandopadhyay emerged as the eminent novelists. Kazi Nazrul Islam was the greatest poet and composer after Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. His 'Agnibeena' and 'Sanchita' are collected by all Bengali households.

Sukumar Roy, Stayendranath Dutta, Jibananda Das, and Sukanta Bhattacharya were the renowned poets of early 20th century. Among the current generation of poets there are Joy Goswami, Shakti Chattopadhyay, and Subhas Mukhopadhyay. The present generation of writers include Sunil Gangopadhyay, Samaresh Majumdar, Budhdhadev Guha, Samaresh Bose, Ashapurna Devi, and Mahasweta Devi.

Poetry is dead in France
No it's not! It's just resting! Okay, it's dead.
Fernandez explains how the poets are increasingly being replaced by singers in the land of Baudelaire. "They write beautiful lyrics, like Barbara, but they are not poets," he reflects sadly, having just shared the dais with Sunil Gangopadhyay, Joy Goswami and Tilottama Majumdar. "Here it seems even the novelists write poetry."

Fernandez lays the blame largely on publishers and the media. "Few books of poetry are printed. Poets are never featured on the television and the radio."

But the poets are not above criticism as well. "Most of them live in intellectual ivory towers. They have become cut off from the people. Neither do they write of simple emotions like love. For that, you have to listen to songs.",+the+Novelist&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=in

Bengali novels
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Bengali novels occupy a major part of Bengali literature. Though the first Bengali novel was Alaler Ghorer Dulal, the Bengali novel actually started its journey with Durgeshnondini written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1865. According to Ananda Sanker and Lila Ray, 'when the novel was introduced in Bangla in the middle of the 19th century, the form itself was new, the prose in which it was written was new, the secular tone was new in a country hitherto wholly dominated by religion, and the society in which and for which it was written was new´ (Page 168). But some great novelists like Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Tara Shankar Bondopadhyay, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay developed the newly introduced genre in such a way that `new´ changed into `matured´ through their works. Almost all these literary activities went on in full swing in Kolkata. Dhaka, on the other hand, could not participate in the early stage but
literature created by and of the people of Bangladesh area later on flourished with notable success.
    * 1 Bangladeshi novels
    * 1.1 Themes of Bangladeshi novels
    * 1.2 History of Bangladeshi novels
    * 1.2.1 Pre-Partition era
    * 1.2.2 East Pakistan era
    * 1.2.3 Bangladesh era
    * 2 Novels of West Bengal, India
    * 3 Further reading
    * 4 References
    * 5 External links 
[edit] Bangladeshi novels
Novels of Bangladesh fall almost fifty years behind the Bengali novels. (First Bengali novel Alaler Ghore Dulal was published in 1858 and Anowara was published in 1914.) In its history of about one hundred years, novels of Bangladesh got a good number of novels where creative emancipation of the writers has been established.
[edit] Themes of Bangladeshi novels
In the early stage, glorification of the religious beliefs and lives was the theme of most of the novels. Later on, picturization of real Bengali life became a common topic. By the end of the fifties, the novelists gradually turned to human mind and its analysis. A great change of the theme came after 1971. Novels about the Liberation War of Bangladesh began to come forth. Even till now it has not ceased to be an interesting topic.
The content and form of the novels saw various changes in the last fifty years. Starting from ordinary narration, now it has reached to magic realistic presentation through stream of consciousness, realism, surrealism etc.
[edit] History of Bangladeshi novels
To many, Anowara was the most significant one among the earlier novels written in Bangladesh. This novel was written by Mohammad Najibar Rahman in 1914. But the milestone in the modern novels of Bangladesh is Syed Waliullah's Lalsalu (published in 1948). The history of Bangladeshi novels can be categorized in 3 major parts.
    * Pre-partition (1947) era
    * East-Pakistan era
    * Bangladesh era
[edit] Pre-Partition era
Before 1947, events like Partition of Bengal in 1905, Foundation of Muslim League in 1906 and Unification of Bangla in 1911 inspired the Muslim community of Dhaka to establish a new identity in the horizon of literature. Mohammad Najibar Rahman, Kazi Imdadul Huq, Kazi Abdul Wadud, Sheikh Idrish Ali, Akbaruddin, Abul Fazal, Humayun Kabir etc were among the novelists who tried to enrich the novels of the then East Pakistan, present Bangladesh.
Mohammad Najibar Rahman's Anowara was the first notable novel and it moved the whole Bangla Muslim community after publication. According to Rafiqullah Khan(ref) `The novel could not create any novelty from artistic point of view, but it carried great importance for its picturization of socio-economic and political culture and ideals of the uprising populace´ (Page 25, Translation). Main theme of most of the novels in this era was Muslim society and belief and orthodoxy. Examples of novels incorporating these theme is Najibar Rahman's Premer Somadhi (published in 1919) and Goriber Meye (1923), Sheikh Idris Ali´s Premer Pothe (1926). In this time, for the first time the life of the Bengali farmers took an artistic delineation through Kazi Abdul Wadud's Nodibakshe (1919).
Then Kazi Imdadul Huq sprinkled a new wave. His famous novel Abdullah was published in periodicals in 1920 and it came into book form in 1933. According to Biswajit Ghosh(ref) this novel was `bourgeois and humanitarian revolt against devotion to Peers, religious dogmas, purdah-system and disparity between Ashraf and Atraf (Page: 134, Translation). Later, 'Kazi Abdul Wadud and Humayun Kabir extended this attitude' (ref:Syed Akram Hussain:page 97). Another novelist Abul Fazal exposed human psychological analyses in his novel Chouchir (1927). He afterwards continued with his own style and wrote Prodip O Patongo (1940) and Shahoshika (1946). It is well accepted that this type of psychological approach was a first attempt in novels of Bangladesh, though not for the first time in Bangla novels.
A progressive novelist Humayun Kabir wrote an English novel Rivers and Women which was published in 1945. Later the Bengali form was published in 1952 by the name of Nodi O Nari.
[edit] East Pakistan era
The independence of India and Pakistan from British rule bore more importance for the people of then Bengal. Since then the Bangla speaking community were divided into two parts - the East and the West Bengal. It turns into the smashing of the millennium-old culture and unity of Bengali nation. Moreover the existence of language became a great question just after the creation of Pakistan. The West-Pakistan ruling government tried to impose Urdu as the principal language on the Bengali people. But the whole society reacted strongly. This leaves a permanent impression on Bengali literature. In this tumultuous era, Syed Waliullah's Lalsalu (1948) was published. It was the foremost successful novel, both from art and reality points of view. Later Syed Waliullah translated it in English by the name Tree Without Roots. Mahbub-ul Alam wrote Mofijon, also published in 1948.
In the first years of Pakistan regime the authors mostly took village life as their theme, but they gradually diversified their interests. Newly-born urban society began to establish itself as worthy to be literary contents. Along with them political developments also took place in fiction. (ref: external link1). Among the first novelists of Pakistan period, Abul Fazal, Akbar Hossain, Shaukat Osman, Abu Rushd, Kazi Afsaruddin, Daulatunnessa Khatun, Syed Waliullah, Sarder Jayenuddin, Abu Ishaque, Shamsuddin Abul Kalam etc were most prominent ones.
Then came a whole generation of extraordinary novelists. Chowdhury Shamsur Rahman, Satyen Sen, Abujafar Shamsuddin, Ahsan Habib, Nilima Ibrahim, Abdur Razzak, Khondkar Md. Eliash, Rashid Karim, Shahidulla Kaisar, Anwar Pasha, Abdar Rashid, Alauddin Al-Azad, Abdul Gaffar Choudhury, Zahir Raihan, Syed Shamsul Haq, Humayun Kadir, Shahid Akhand, Razia Khan, Shawkat Ali, Dilara Hashim, Indu Saha, Ahmed Sofa were notable names.
In this time diversity of contents of the novel was noticeable. Village life was the core theme of a huge number of novels. Sometimes it centered the superstitious village mind or the oppression by the influential groups on the common people, some other times depressed womanhood took this place. Love between men and women in pastoral context were also a subject of many novels. Lalshalu by Syed Waliullah, Kashboner Konna by Shamsuddin Abul Kalam, Surjo Dighol Bari by Abu Ishaque, Meghabaran Kesh by Ishaq Chakhari, Adiganta by Sardar Jayenunddin, Mohuar Desh by Tasadduk Hossain, Janani by Shaukat Osman, Jhar by Syed Sahadat Hossain, Karnafully by Alauddin Al-Azad, Sareng Bou and Sangsaptak by Shahidulla Kaisar, Aranya Mithun by Badruddin Ahmad, Modhumoti by Rabeya Khatun, Hazar Bachhar Dhore by Zahir Raihan, Bobakahini by Jasimuddin, Pannamoti by Sardar Jayenuddin etc incorporated these themes.
Middle class society began to evolve in this time. Urban life, its problems and complexities, uprising middle class people, their social context and love in their life started to be portrayed in a good number of novels. Jibon Pother Jatri by Abul Fazal, Pother Porosh (1957) by Daulatunnessa Khatun, Bhorer Bihongi (1958) by Satyen Sen, Surjer Niche (1958) by Atahar Ahmad, Pathasranta (1959) by Nilima Ibrahim, Shesh Bikeler Meye (1960) by Zahir Raihan, Kanyakumari (1960) by Abdur Razzak, Uttam Purush (1961) by Rashid Karim, Ek Path Dui Bank (1962) by Nilima Ibrahim, Akash Jodi Nil Hoi (1962) and Ihai To Prem (1963) by Syed Sahadat Hossain, Prasanno Pashan (1963) by Rashid Karim, Pingal Aakash (1963) by Shawkat Ali, Akasher Rong (1964) by Zobeda Khanam, Panna Holo Sobuz (1964) by Shahid Akhand, Nirjan Megh (1965) by Humayun Kadir, Ghar Mon Janala (1965) by Dilara Hashim, Aronyo Nilima (1965) by Ahsan Habib, Antahshila (1967) by Kazi Md. Idris, Digonter
Swapno (1967) by Razia Majid, Mon Ek Shet Kopoti (1967), Shaheb Bazar (1967) and Ananto Aneysha (1967) by Rabeya Khatun, Bipani Mon (1968) by Mir Abul Hossain, Sourav (1968) by Anis Chowdhury, Anishchita Ragini (1969) by Abu Rushd, Borof Gola Nodi (1969) by Zahir Raihan, Rajabagh Shahimar Bagh (1969) by Rabeya Khatun etc are significant novels of this stream.
But the background of another major event was being prepared in this time. The country began to experience turmoil. The political situation of the country became more and more prominent in the novels also. In novels like Nongor by Abu Rushd and Mon Na Moti by Anis Siddique, Jibon Khuda by Abul Monsoor Ahmed exposed the context of Pakistan Movement. Communal picture out of this movement and the restoration of Hindu-Muslim harmony also became core content in a number of novels including Ranga Probhat by Abul Fazal, Khuda O Asha by Alauddin Al-Azad, Neer Sandhani and Nishuti Rater Gatha by Anwar Pasha etc.
Then came the historic event of the Bengali Language Movement. The keen eyes of the novelists were nowhere but on this tremendous incident. Jahir Raihan´s Aarek Falgoon was the most significant effort on language movement. Other political incidents like the class conflict, socialism, and movement in the cultivators was depicted in the novels like Dui Mohol (later on renamed as Alamnagorer Upokotha) by Shamsuddin Abul Kalam, Surjo Tumi Sathi by Ahmad Sofa etc. Shaukat Osman wrote wonderful symbolic political novels Kritodasher Hashi and Raja Upakhyan. Abdul Gaffar Chowdhury´s Chandradwiper Upakhyan and Nam Na Jana Bhore portrayed the uprising farmer society and its conflicts.
There were some historical novels also. Abujafar Shamsuddin´s Bhaowal Gorer Upakhayan about the Faraizi Movement, Sardar Jayenuddin´s Nil Rong Rokto about the Indigo revolt, Satyen Sen´s Kumarajiva about the spread of Buddhism, and Oporajeyo about the Sepoy Revolt etc. are a few examples among them. Some novelists favoured psychological complexities. With his unique presentation and language of his own, Syed Waliullah wrote Chander Amabashya and Kando Nodi Kando keeping psychological analysis in the centre.
Another trend of novels having emphasis on the sexual behaviours and deviations of the characters began to mark its own place during the sixties. Razia Khan's Bot-tolar Uponyas, and Anukolpo was among the first novels of this trend. Alauddin Al-Azad's Teish Nambor Toilochitro, Shiter Sheshrat Boshonter Prothomdin and Syed Shamsul Haq's Ek Mohilar Chhobi, Anupama Din, Simana Chhariye etc are mentionables in this regard.
Afterwards came the most memorable days of Bangali nation. After ten month long war Bangalis became independent nation. After the massacre of three million people and huge violation and harassment of womenfolk and loss of property Bangladesh emerged as a secular and democratic nation on 16 December 1971, and Bangladeshi novel enters into a new era.
[edit] Bangladesh era
Most of the writers who were contributing in the pre-liberation period were also very creative in this period. Rashid Karim wrote novels based on middle-class society and their societal and psychological analysis. Alauddin Al-Azad, Shawkat Ali, Razia Khan and Dilara Hashim, Mahmudul Haque, Ahmad Sofa, Syed Shamsul Haq is among other notable names. Syed Shamsul Haq, commonly known as Syed Huq, wrote a good number of novels along with a huge number of books of other genres. He is always very experimental in both technique and form. Khelaram Khele Ja placed him in great controversy for his open delineation of human sexual behaviour. In his novels like Duratto, Mahashunye Poran Master, Ek Juboker Chhayapoth etc. Liberation war, its consequences, hopeless human existence and analysis of human mind and society take sharp pen-picture. Another powerful writer Shawkat Ali wrote Prodoshe Praakritojon, which is a real representation of the twelfth century Bangla
during King Lakhkhan Sen. His trilogy Dakshinayaner Din, Kulaya Kalasrot and Purbaratri Purbadin deserve much compliment. Mahmudul Haque wrote Anur Pathshala before liberation war in 1967. He wrote Nirapod Tondra, Khelaghar (written 1978, published 1988), Kalo Borof (written in 1977, published in 1992), and Matir Jahaj (written in 1977, published in 1996). Ahmad Sofa, wrote novels with different tone. In Onkar (1975) he portrayed the suppressed Bangali mind of the pre-liberation period in a very artistic and symbolic way. In Gaavi Brityanto he presents the contemporary picture in a meticulous allegory. Ardhek Nari Ardhek Ishwari, a novel of romantic love, is widely considered as his masterpiece. His Pushpa Brikhkha Ebong Bihongo Puran is a narration of true human affinity to nature.
After the liberation war, freedom fight became a unique subject. The first of this discipline is Anwar Pasha´s Rifle Roti Awrat that he wrote during the war. Shaukat Osman's Jahannam Hoite Bidai, Nekre Aranyo, Dui Soinik, Rashid Haider's Khanchai, Andho Kothamala, Shawkat Ali's Jatraa, Selina Hossain's Hangor Nodi Granade, Mahmudul Huq's Jiban Aamar Bone]], Syed Shamsul Haq's Nil Dangshon, Nishiddho Loban, Harun Habib´s Priyo Joddha Priyotoma, Humayun Ahmed's Jochona O Jononir Golpo etc. are examples of novels which directly deal freedom fight as their subject. Besides this, novels like Amar Jato Glani by Rashid Karim, Ferari Surjo by Rabeya Khatun, Abelay Ashamoy by Amjad Hossain also portray the different facets of liberation war. Rashid Karim's Prem Ekti Lal Golap, Ekaler Rupkotha or Sadharon Loker Kahini are presentation of the hopeless picture of Bangladesh after the war. 'Critics say that though after the liberation huge number of novels was
written about our war, none of them could depict the historic incident in necessary epic form'. (ref:externallink 1)
New faces appeared in the literary world after the liberation. Among them Selina Hossain, Humayun Ahmed, Hasnat Abdul Hye, Rizia Rahman, Bashir al-Helal were most prominent.
Selina Hossain started with Jalochchhwas and till now she has authored more than twenty-one novels. Her Hangor Nodi Granade is a success written on Bangladesh Liberation War. She has written novels like Taanaporen on coastal life and natural disaster. Gayatree Sondhya (3 volumes: published in, 1994, 1995, 1996), Kalketu O Fullora, Chandbene are some of her historical novels.
Abdur Rouf Choudhury's novel Natun Diganta (three volumes: published in 1991, 1992, 1993 and complete collection in 2005 by Pathak Shamabesh) is a quality work of art by any standard and most successful writing on pre- Bangladesh Liberation War. Choudhury most vividly depicted the unity of Bengal and the articulation of Bengali nationalism in his novel Natun Diganta (New Horizon) (vols. 1-3). Reason and humanity - these are its two eternal pillars. The essence of Choudhury´s thought is a complete faith in the efficiency of these two immeasurable forces. Its most striking characteristic is its insistent association of work, precept and practice. It appeals not to controversial tests, not to any appearance of sweet reasonableness but to trials in the rough and tumble of life, and it will accept no other judgment. Natun Diganta gives warning against: 1) dogma, mysticism, ceremonial, hypnotism, the binding of the mind and will by oaths, and other
inventions of external authority in religion and politics, 2) participation in violence, individual or social, and organisation's dependence on violence, 3) exploitation, luxury and material property, 4) self-degradation and 5) devotion to self-sacrifice.
Humayun Ahmed, perhaps the most popular novelist in Bengali after Sarat Chandra Chatyopadyay, appeared with his novel Nondito Noroke and then Shonkhoneel Karagar. Later he gradually turned to less serious things. Almost all of his novels are best sellers. Some of his titles are 1971, Daruchinir Deep, Brihonnola, Joyjoyonti, Kobi etc. Humayun Ahmed's Tomader Jonno Valobasa is the first science fiction novel in Bangladesh.
A serious poet, essayist and literary researcher Abdul Mannan Syed published his first novel Pariprekshter Dasdashi in 1974. Later on he wrote Kolkata, Poramatir Kaaj, O Te Ojogor, Hei Songsar Hei Lota, Khudha, Prem, Aagun, Shyamoli Tomar Mukh etc. Hasnat Abdul Hye, arrived with his Suprobhat Bhalobasa. By now he has written at least twenty novels. Along with his other novels he has introduced a different form of novels called biographical. Sultan, Ekjon Aaroj Ali and Novera are example of this form. All of these novels are based on the biographical sketches of giant Bangali characters. Rizia Rahman´s Uttar Purush came in black and white in 1977. She wrote some fifteen novels in the eighties. Her voluminous Bongo Theke Bangla is an epic composition about the past culture and heritage of Bangali nation. Her other major novels are Rokter Okhkhor, Alikhito Upakhyan, Ekal Chirokal, Prem Aamar Prem, Ekti Phuler Jonyo, Harun Fereni etc. Bashir al-Helal´s
Kalo Elish was published in 1979. His other novels include Ghritokumari, Shesh Panpatro, Nurjahander Modhumas etc.
In the eighties, Bangladeshi novel got some senior writers who wrote novels for the first time along with some promising young ones. Among the earlier writers Abubakar Siddique's Jalarakshas and Kharadaha appeared with much novelty. His important later novel is Ekatturer Hridoybhashma. Makbula Manjoor started in the late years of the sixties, but most of her novels came out in the eighties and nineties. Kaler Mondira is one of her most notable work. Rahat Khan wrote novels about middle class city people, their joys and sorrows, love and separation. His significant works include Omol Dhabol Chakri, Ek Priyodorshini, Chhayadampoti , Hai Shunyota, Sangharsho, Shahar, Hai Anonter Pakhi, Modhyomather Khelowar etc.
Akhtaruzzaman Elias , one of the most artistic but least productive writers, wrote only two novels. He has started his journey with Chilekothar Sepai. His most prestigious work Khoabnama, which came out in 1996, is considered a milestone in the history of Bangla novels.
Another senior novelist Abu Ishaque's second novel Padmar Palidwip was published in 1986, after thirty-one years of his debut novel Surjo Dighal Bari. Appearance and disappearance of Chars (strip of sandy land), their effect on nearby humanity etc. have taken a keen narration in Padmar Palidwip.
Haripada Datta is also a worthy name. His two-volume novel Ojogor (Vol. I -1989, Vol. II-1991) chronicles the recent past history very remarkably. His previous novels are Eshane Ognidaho and Ondhokupe Janmothsob. In 2000 he wrote an epic volume titled Jonmo Jonmantor.
From the early years of the eighties, the arrival of some young novelists who, later on, obtained enough popularity, was heard. Monju Sarkar, Imdadul Haq Milon and Moinul Ahsan Saber are the few but most common names in this regard. Monju Sarkar´s Tamosh, Nagno Agontuk, Protima Upakhyan and Abashbhumi, Imdadul Haq Milon´s Jabojjibon (written in 1976, published in 1900), Nodi Upakhyan, Bhumiputro, Poradhinota, Rajakartontro, Moinul Ahsan Saber´s Adomer Jonye Opekhkha, Pathor Somoy, Char Torun Toruni, Manush Jekhane Jai Na, Dharabahik Kahin, Opeksha, Kobej Lethel, Tumi Amake Niye Jabe, Prem O Protishodh, Songsher Japon got much recognition from the literati. Shahidul Zahir, wrote his first novel Jibon O Rajnoitic Bastobota, published in 1988 while his second, till now the last, Shei Rate Purnima Chhilo came out in 1995. Magic realism, which is a recent trend of the Latin American novels, takes place in Shahidul Zahir's narration.
The last decade of twentieth century is comparatively fruitful for Bangladeshi novels. Al Mahmud's novelistic exposition, Bipradas Barua´s Buddhist life, Humayun Azad's brave creations, Akimun Rahman's novels about womanhood, Nasreen Jahan's novels of magic realism, Shamsuddin Abul Kalam's historic work Kanchongram is few mark of this decade. Syed Shamsul Haq's masterpiece Bristi O Bidrohigon, published in 1998, is a milestone on the past heritage and liberation war. Senior poet Al Mahmud's debut novel Dahuki came out in 1992 which was followed by Kobi O Kolahol , Upamohadesh, Kabiler Bone, Purush Sundor, Nishinda Nari etc. Bipradas Barua's major novels are Somudrochar O Bidrohira, Muktijoddhara, Shromon Goutam etc.
Humayun Azad commenced his novelist carrier with Chhappanno Hajar Borgomile in 1994, which was a courageous slap on martial law and dictatorship. In no time the novel brought its writer much name and popularity. His later novels include Sob Kichhu Bhenge Pore, Subhabrata, Tar Samparkita Susamachar, Rajnitibidgon etc. Mohammad Nurul Huda, a renowned poet, had also two attempts in novel. Excepting Janmajati and Moinpahar he did not make any third attempt. Akimun Rahman is the first novelist ever in Bangla language in whose writing the untold and unknown secrets of womanhood are getting tongue. She has by now written four novels, Purusher Prithibite Ek Meye , Roktopunje Genthe Jawya Machhi, Pashe Shudhu Chhaya Chhilo, and Jeebaner Roudre Udechhilo Kayekti Dhulikana. Another notable novelist is Nasreen Jahan. Her first novel Urukku arrived with much appreciation. In her novels like Chondrer Prothom Kola, Chondrolekhar Jaadubistar, Sonali Mukhosh, Ure Jai
Nishipakhkhi etc, she manipulated the elements of magic realism. Anisul Hoque, a journalist by profession, has established himself as a renowned writer. His Andhokarer Ekshaw Bachhar presented him a very honourable place but Ma (The Mother) has given him international reputation. Imtiar Shamim is also a young but promising name for the novels of recent Bangladesh. In Dana Kata Himer Bhetor he presented an NGO-world. His Amra Hetechhi Jara encompassed a very touching story of the sorry saga of post-independence Bangladesh life.
[edit] Novels of West Bengal, India

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
This section requires expansion.
    * Durgesh Nandini by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
    * Madhabi Kankan by Ramesh Chandra Dutta
    * Gora by Rabindranath Tagore
    * Ghare Baire by Rabindranath Tagore
    * Shesher Kabita by Rabindranath Tagore
    * Pather Dabi by Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay
    * Shesh Prashna by Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay
    * Pather Panchali by Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyay
    * Aranyak by Bibhuti Bhushan Bandyopadhyay
    * Ganadevata by Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay
    * Nagini Kanyar Kahini by Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay
    * Hansuli Banker Upakatha by Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay
    * Putul Nacher Itikatha by Manik Bandyopadhyay
    * Padmanadir Majhi by Manik Bandyopadhyay
    * Jagari by Satinath Bhaduri
    * Antarjalijatra by Kamal Kumar Majumdar
    * Ekhon Amar Kono Asukh Nei by Sandipan Chattopadhyay
    * Rubi Kakhan Asbe by Sandipan Chattopadhyay
    * Jiban Je Rakam by Sunil Gangopadhyay
    * Prathom Alo by Sunil Gangopadhyay
    * Uttar Jahnabi by Syed Mustafa Siraj
    * Aleek Manush by Syed Mustafa Siraj
    * Trinabhumi by Syed Mustafa Siraj
    * Ghunpoka by Shirsendu Mukhopadhyay
    * Purna Apurna by Bimal Kar
    * Kharkuto by Bimal Kar
    * Banpalashir Padabali by Ramapada Choudhury
    * Dwiper nam Tiarong by Ramapada Choudhury
    * Mirar Dupur by Jyotirindra Nandi
    * Baaro Ghar Ek Uthon by Jyotirindra Nandi
    * Ei Taar Puroshkar by Jyotirindra Nandi
    * Nilkantha Pakhir Khonje by Atin Bandyopadhyay
    * Aloukik jalajan by Atin Bandyopadhyay
    * Manusher Gharbari by Atin Bandyopadhyay
    * Dubjaley Jetuku Prashwas by Malay Roy Choudhury
    * Kheladhula by Basudeb Dasgupta
    * Bramhavargab Puran by Kamal Chakraborty
    * Brikhu by Kamal Chakraborty
    * Herbert by Nabarun Bhattacharya
    * Matam by Barin Ghosal
    * Suryaheen by Arupratan Ghosh
[edit] Further reading
    * Bangla Academy Lekhak Obhidhan, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1998
    * Bangla Uponyase Chitrita Jiban O Somaj, Sudhamoy Das, Dhaka, 1995
    * Purba O Pashchim Banglar Uponyas, Shahida Akter, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1992
    * Amader Uponyase Bisoy Chetona : Bivagottor Kal, Muhammad Idris Ali, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1988
[edit] References
    * Bangla Academy Charitabhidhan, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, Second Enlarged Edition, 1997
    * Rafiqullah Khan, Bangladesher Uponyas: Bishay O Shilparup, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1997
    * Syed Akram Hossain, `Bangladesher Uponyas: Chetanaprabaha O Shilpajijnansha´, Prosango Bangla Kathashahitya, Mawla Brothers, Dhaka, 1997
    * Annada Sankar and Lila Ray, Bengali Literature, Pashchimbanga Bangla Academy, Kolkata, 2000
    * Biswajit Ghosh, Bangladesher Uponyas, Sahitya Patrika, Vol. 28 No. 01, Dhaka University, Dhaka, 1984
    * Bangladesher Uponyase Char Doshok, Kalyan Mirbar, Kolkata, 1992
    * Bangladesher Koekjon Ouponyashik, Subrata Kumar Das, Dhaka, 2005
[edit] External links
    * An article on Bangladeshi novels
    * A link on Bangladeshi literature
    * An article on Bengali literary heritage
    * An Indian Bengali Webzine
    * Bengali Literature Archive
    * Bangla book archive
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The Contemporary Indian Novel


Embedded in the title of this minor field are many of the questions that I wish to pose in my reading of the texts below. No study entitled "The Contemporary Indian Novel" can escape the vexed question of its geographic construction. To what extent can any of these novels be described as "Indian"? According to Amit Chaudhuri, the "Indian" novel is necessarily written in English. He writes that the qualificatory "in English" is unnecessary, as it is absurd to assume that any work in Kannada or Bengali might also be in some way "Indian"-they do not claim to participate in the fiction of the "postcolonial totality called India". In some way, the titles I have chosen do indeed participate in a fiction called India, simply because they have been associated with a body of fiction known, even in Chaudhuri's Picador anthology, as Indian Literature. Much less clear is their relationship to a "postcolonial totality". If postcolonial is in this case to mean
postnational or supranational, then indeed the writers below are a part of the construction of something that is postcolonial. The nature of this postcolonial, and its relationship to a totality called India, is at the heart of the questions I wish to ask of the body of literature represented below.

In the course of my reading I wish to investigate the complex ways in which a group of texts constitutes a transnational body of literature that speaks from sites both within and outside of a greater "India" and yet has come to bear the burden of representing something called India-usually defined in relation to British India-to the English-speaking world. Does the work of these writers-from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and their emigrant communities-constitute itself as a body of Indian literature? To what extent is it a literature of a transnational Indian community? In effect, I wish to read these novels to understand if or how they constitute a transnational Indian subject for an Anglophone reading audience.


Chaudhuri, Amit
- Afternoon Raag
- A New World
Desai, Anita
- Clear Light of Day
- Fasting, Feasting
Ghosh, Amitay
- In an Antique Land
Kureishi, Hanif
- The Buddha of Suburbia
- Gabriel's Gift
- Intimacy
Mistry, Rohinton
- A Fine Balance
- Family Matters
- Such a Long Journey
Mukherjee, Bharati
- Desirable Daughters
- Jasmine
Naipaul, V.S.
- A House for Mr. Biswas
- The Enigma of Arrival
Ondaatje, Michael
- Anil's Ghost
- The English Patient
Roy, Arundhati.
- The God of Small Things
Rushdie, Salman
- Haroun and the Sea of Stories
- Midnight's Children
- The Moor's Last Sigh
- The Satanic Verses
- Shame
Seth, Vikram
- An Equal Music
- The Golden Gate
Suri, Manil
- The Death of Vishnu   

Patriotic Literature

Exact Match
  Indo Aryan
  Early Dravidian

  Medieval Period
  Bhakti Period
  Bhakti in Hindi
  Bhakti in Bengali
  Bhakti in Punjabi
  Bhakti in
  European Impact

Home| Languages | Literature  | Assamese | Bengali | Gujarati | Hindi | Kannada | Marathi | Oriya | Punjabi | Rajasthani | Sanskrit | Tamil | Telugu | Urdu | Ramayana | Mahabharata 

During the late 1800's, the various regions of India began to share a common purpose in reacting to the British presence in their country. A nationalist movement gradually grew in strength. This movement was the inspiration behind much Indian writing in the 1800's and early 1900's. A common pattern exists in the modern literature of most Indian languages. The spread of journalism helped the development of prose writing, with the short story becoming especially popular.
Writers such as the Bengali Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838-1894) attacked colonialism and created their own brand of nationalism. Bankim's historical novels achieved popularity throughout the subcontinent and helped spread nationalism and patriotism. Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), the greatest name in modern Indian literature, made federalism an important part of his concept of national ideology. He said that the unity of India should be a unity in diversity.
Patriotic writings grew almost simultaneously in different languages as part of the resistance of a community to foreign rule. For example, Rangalal in Bengali, Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869) in Urdu, and Bharatendu Harishchandra (1850-1885) in Hindi all expressed their opposition to colonial rule and wrote about the glorification of India.
The Bengali writer Michael Madhusan Dutt (1824-1873) wrote the first modern epic in an Indian language. Subramania Bharati (1882-1921) was a great Tamil poet who revolutionized the poetic tradition in Tamil. Maithili Saran Gupta (1886-1964) and Bhai Vir Singh (1872-1957), writing in Hindi and Punjabi respectively, took themes from mythology and history for their patriotic epics.
The first Indian novels appeared in the late 1800's. Krishnamona Chetty's Sri Ranga Raja (1872) was the first novel in Telugu; Samuel V. Pillai's Pratap Mudaliyar Charitram (1879) was the first in Tamil; and Chandu Menon's Indu Lekha (1889) the first in Malayalam. These novels questioned contemporary social practices and customs. Similarly, the Bengali novel Phulmani O Karunar Bibaran (1852) by the English writer H. Catherine Mullens and the Hindi novel Pariksha Guru (1882) by Lala Sriniwas Das examined social issues.
Historical novels were written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in Bengali and Hari Narayan Apte in Marathi to describe the glorious past of India and instill nationalist sentiments in their readers. Tagore wrote his novel Gora (1910) to challenge colonial rule and to give new meaning to Indian nationalism.
Gandhi's influence.  The ideas of Gandhi deeply affected India in the decades leading up to independence in 1947. Gandhi, writing in Gujarati, English, and Hindi, used the language of common people. He used the weapons of truth and nonviolence and spoke out in favour of traditional values and against industrialization. Gandhi became a symbol of peace and idealism. Writers of fiction and poetry in almost all the Indian languages adopted the Gandhian figure as a theme of cultural nationalism.
Saratchandra Chattopadhyay (1876-1938) is one of the most popular Bengali novelists. A Gandhian and a socialist, his influence spread throughout India with translations of his books in various Indian languages. Premchand (1880-1936) wrote novels in Hindi. He wrote about the plight of the poor in India. His greatest achievement, the novel Godan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936), tells the story of a debt-laden peasant and his struggle for survival.

Indian Literature
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Introduction; Beginnings; Classical Literature; Medieval Literature: The Rise of the Regional Languages; Colonial Period to Independence; Independence Onwards
V  Colonial Period to Independence
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The British became a colonial power in India in the 1700s and established control over much of the subcontinent by the early 1800s. In 1835 the British colonial government introduced English education for upper-class Indians so that they could serve in the administration of the colony. English education exposed Indians to Western ideas, literary works, and values. At the same time, translations of Indian literary works by Western scholars stimulated Indians to approach their own literary and cultural heritage from new perspectives. One such translation was a 1789 version of the 4th-century Sanskrit play Shakuntala, translated by British linguist Sir William Jones.
The introduction of the printing press in India made possible the establishment of newspapers and journals in English and Indian languages. These media created new opportunities for Indians to write, publish, and communicate across their large country. A major development in this period was the Bengal Renaissance, a cultural movement among Bengalis in Calcutta (now Kolkata), which was both the British capital and a center of Bengali culture. The writers of the Bengal Renaissance led the way in synthesizing Indian and Western ideas in literature and culture.
A  Poetry
Of the early examples of modern writing in India, some of the best were in poetry. Famed writer Rabindranath Tagore began his career in the late 19th century with innovative poetry in the Bengali language, but he also drew on traditional forms of poetry and performance. Perhaps his best-known work is Gitanjali (Song Offerings, 1910), a collection of poems. Many of Tagore´s poetic and musical dramas, such as Dak-ghar (The Post Office, 1912), were performed at Santiniketan, the school that he founded near Calcutta. In 1913 Tagore won the Nobel Prize for literature, becoming the first non-European winner of the award.
Two female poets of the time, Toru Dutt and Sarojini Naidu, both Bengali by birth, distinguished themselves with works in English. Dutt died when she was only 21 years old, but Naidu had a long and illustrious career in literature and politics. The Golden Threshold (1905) is a major collection of her poems, which often focus on themes relating to Indian cultural traditions and Indian women´s lives. Naidu also wrote speeches and essays, and she became a leader of the nationalist movement, which sought independence from Britain. Subrahmaniya Bharati wrote some of the earliest prose and poetry in the modern form of the Tamil language. His poems reflect his passionate dedication to the cause of freedom from British rules, and his desire for progress for India as a modern nation. Other authors, such as the noted Hindi poets Sacchidanand Vatsyayan, Suryakant Tripathi, and Mahadevi Varma (a female author and winner of the literature prize of the Indian
Academy of Letters), wrote works of a more introspective, personal character.

Winner of the prestigious Bangla Academy Literature Award in 1976 plus other notable literary and cultural awards in South Asia and North America, Dilara Hashem has maintained a steady literary output for four decades, totaling some 30 volumes of novels, memoirs, short stories, poetry and translations.

Her 1966 debut novel Ghor Mon Janala (Home, Heart, Window) was a major success for the young wife, mother and recent graduate of Dhaka University (M.A. Honors in English Literature). Recognized as the first significant contemporary urban Bangla novel set in the then East Pakistan, Ghor Mon Janala garnered critical and poular praise and became a feature film in Bangladesh (1993). It was further published in Russian in Moscow and Chinese in Beijing (the latter translation, in 1996 a first for any Bangladeshi novel). 

The twirls of life
SANGEETA BAROOAH PISHAROTY speaks to Nandini Guha about "Dark Afternoons", her translation of a novel by popular Bengali writer Bani Basu 
Photo: Shiv Kumar Pushpakar

Giving voice to the vernacular Nandini Guha in New Delhi
So many times, many a great literary work remains dead to us because of its language. That language can be a barrier to literature is particularly true in a country like ours, divided by different tongues. This is what makes the role of translators important in our literature. But indeed, a translator´s job is not just to present a piece of literary work from one language to another. Line by line. It is to try and make accessible the fine distinction of the language of the original work to the new readers.
Delhi University professor Nandini Guha is aware of these intricacies. "It shouldn´t read like a translation," she underlines. Guha also agrees that a good translated work can become better if you can bring out the nuances of the original work without fiddling too much with it.
Such consciousness led her to take part in the Katha competition for translated works in 2001. Her entry at the competition was an English translation of "Kharab Chele", a novel by Bani Basu, a key voice of contemporary Bengali literature. Guha named her work "The Fallen Man".
"I was so moved by the novel that I felt like translating it into English so that a wider section of readers get to enjoy it too," says Basu. "The Fallen Man" bagged the Katha award for the best translated work that year. And it gave this professor of English literature the additional career of a translator. "The Fallen Man", which got published in an anthology of awarded stories by Katha some years ago, has recently been rechristened as "Dark Afternoons" and released separately as a novel by the publishing house.First work
Guha obviously is excited. "This is my first serious published work as a translator. Before that, I appeared only in college magazines," she says jocularly. "Dark Afternoons" is a gripping tale about human associations staged in the city of Kolkata. It has quite a few parallel tracks about different lives lived and their relationships with each other but the main track is that of the protagonist Jina, who takes up a job to fill her empty afternoons. It soon transforms her sheltered existence.
But the most lovable character is definitely Jina´s father-in-law, adds Guha. "The way Bani Basu has portrayed this character is admirable. It can change one´s perception about typical fathers-in-law. Very subtly she instils in you the thought that such characters do exist in our society," explains Guha.
Known for bringing in contemporary happenings to her pages, Bani Basu, in "Kharab Chele", also deals with the subject of AIDS quite delicately. She questions the role of NGOs working in the field and also ponders whether their vision is any way close to stemming the problem. Basu, known for many impressive novels, has also written "Moom", in a language that Marwari residents of Kolkata speak, a mix of Bengali and Marwari, used for first time to pen an entire novel.
In "Dark Afternoons", Guha fills the pages with footnotes that give meanings of different Bengali terms and usages. She explains, "I deliberately left words like `kal boishak´ as there can be no English word to give the local effect. I seriously feel that a reader picks a translated work to get the local flavour. So I didn´t want to westernise it too much. The footnotes are for those who don´t follow such words."
All keyed up, she is on to her next work of translation. It is yet again a Bani Basu novel, "Shwet Pathorer Thhala". A path-breaking book, it trails the plight of widowhood, where a widow questions the family of her husband why she has to be always in mourning. She asks them, "Am I the only one who lost someone?" The book will be published by Zubaan.

Bengali Literature - A brief Introduction
By Literary India on April 02,2007 
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by correspondent posted on Apr 16,2007
by shailendra posted on Aug 09,2006

Bengali literature
The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. Charyapada is in the oldest known written form of Bengali. The famous Bengali linguist Harprashad Shastri discovered the palm leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907.
*  Starting of modern era
In the middle of 19th century, Bengali literature gained momentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating the text books in Bengali to help teach the British some indian languages including Bengali. This work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose.
*  Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy arrived in Calcutta in 1814 and engaged in literary pursuits. Translating from Sanskrit to Bengali, writing essays on religious topics and publishing magazines were some the areas he focussed on. He established a cultural group in the name of 'Atyio Sova' (Club of Kins) in 1815.
*  Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyaya (popularly known as "Vidyasagar" which means 'ocean of knowledge') was mainly known as a social reformer and an educator. But his contribution to the Bengali literature was also crucially important . Most modern scholars agree that, it was he who played the most significant role in the inception of effective Bengali prose writing, partly laying the foundation of modern Bengali literature.
Vidysagar realized the need of educating women in the society. With his tireless effort to uplift the status of women in the society, he was able to establish some Girl's schools in different parts of Bengal. But there was no good Bengali text book for basic Bengali education. He wrote Bengali books with basic language construct and fundamentals, like, "Barnaparichay", "Bodhoday", "Kathamala" etc. and then easy grammar books like "Upakramonika" and "Byakaron Kaumudi". He also introduced some basic books for Mathematical logic. Rabindranath Tagore called him as the father of modern Bengali language. Vidyasagar translated some masterpieces of Sanskrit and English literature into Bengali: "betaal panchabingshati"(Sanskrit Kathasarit sagar, "shakuntala", "bhranti bilaas" , "sitaar banabaas" and edited books like "raghubangsha", "kumarsambhab" etc.
*  Parichand Mitra
Parichand Mitra (penname Tekchand Thakur),is widely considered to be the first Bengali novelist for his novel "Alaler Ghore Dulal". This novel was published in 1858. In this novel he used the colloquial language, something that was almost unthinkable for the literati of his time.
*  Impact of Nil Bidroho and Dinabandhu Mitra
In 1857, the famous 'Sipahi Biplob' (Sepoy Mutiny) took place. With the wind of it, 'Nil Bidroho'(Blue Revolt)scattered all over then Bengal region. This Nil Bidroho lasted for more than a year (In 1859-1860). The literature world was shaken with this revolt. In the light of this revolt, a great drama was published from Dhaka in the name of 'Nil Dorpon' (The Blue Mirror). Dinabandhu Mitra was the writer of this play.
*  Michael Madhusudan Dutt
In this time, Michael Madhusudan Dutt emerged as the first epic-poet of modern bangla literature. Dutt, a Christian by conversion, is best known for his Ramayana-based masterpiece, "The Slaying of Meghnadh," (in Bengali "Meghnadh Bodh Kabbo" , which essentially follows in the poetic tradition of Milton's Paradise Lost. Those who have read it consider this work a world-class epic poem of the modern era. Michael Madhusudan Dutta is also credited with the introduction of sonnets to Bangla literature. He ruled the bangla literature wold for more than a decade (1858-1863).
*  Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay starts his journey through bangla literature with his first publishd novel 'Durgeshnondini' (Daughter of the Fort Lord) in 1865. he is considered as one of the leading Bengali novelists and is popularly known as the author of India's first national song, "Bande Matarom" (pronounced in Hindi "Vande Mataram").
*  Others
Bangla literature also become rich with its variations. It started to spread its different branches also. in poetry Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Biharilal Chokroborty, Kaykobad, in novel Romeshchandra Dutt, Mir Mosharraf Hossain, in plays Girish Chandra Gosh, in essays Akshay Kumar Boral, Ramendro Sundar Tribedy and many others contributed to enrich bangla literature in this time.
A lot of literature magazines and newspapers started to come under day light. A number of educational institutes appears all over the region. This helps a lot to nurture the future author and poets of bangla language.
*  Influence of Rabindranath Tagore
Possibly the most prolific writer in Bangla is Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore dominated both the Bengali and Indian philosophical and literary scene for decades. His 2,000 Rabindrasangeets play a pivotal part in defining Bengali culture, both in West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is the author of the national anthems of both India and Bangladesh, both composed in Bangla. Other notable Bangla works of his are Gitanjali, a book of poems for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and many short stories and a few novels. It is widely accepted that Bangla Literature accomplished its contemporary look by the writings and influence of Rabindranath.
*  Kazi Nazrul Islam

In a similar category is Kazi Nazrul Islam, a Muslim who was invited to post-partition Bangladesh as the National Poet and whose work transcends sectarian boundaries. Adored by Bengalis both in Bangladesh and West Bengal, his work includes 3,000 songs, known as both as nazrul geeti and "nazrul sangeet". He is frequently called the rebel poet mainly because of his most famous and electrifying poem "Bidrohi" or "The Rebel", and also because of his strong sympathy and support for revolutionary activities leading to India's independence from British Rule. His songs and poems were frequently used during the Bangladesh Liberation War as well. Though he is acknowledged as the rebel poet, Nazrul very effectively contributed in all branches of literature. He wrote poems that lights the fire against enequality or unjust and the same time he wrote some awesome romantic poems. He wrote a lot of Islami Gazals and in the same time wrote a number of Shyama Sangeet
(songs for the Hindu Mother Goddess, Kali). Nazrul was not only a poet, he was writer, musician, journalist and philosopher. He was sent to jail for his literary works against then prevailing British rule.
*  Other notable names
*  Novelists
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay was one of the most popular novelists of early 20th century whose speciality was exploring complex human psychology and drama. Tarashankar Bandopadhay was another famous novelist whose works feature a realistic picture of the many-colored fabric of life in rural Bengal in a pioneering modernist style of prose in fiction. Other famous bengali novelists are Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay, Manik Bandopadhyay, Balai Chand Mukhopadhyay(Banophool), Saradindu Bandopadhyay, Bimal Mitra, Bimal Kar, Samaresh Basu etc. Early bengali science fiction works were also written in the 19th and early 20th centuries by writers such as Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Premendra Mitra, Satyajit Ray, etc.
*  Short story writers
Bengali literature is also famous for short stories. Some of the famous short story writers are Rabindranath Tagore, Manik Bandopadhyay, Tarashankar, Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay, Raj Shekhar Basu (Parasuram), Premendra Mitra, Sibram Chakraborty, Saradindu Bandopadhyay, Subodh Ghosh, Narendra Nath Mitra, Narayan Gangopadhyay, Santosh Ghosh, etc.
The famous Bengali film director Satyajit Ray also wrote many short stories. One of his stories was Bankubabur Bandhu (Banku Babu's Friend) written in 1962, which was the first science fiction story to portray an alien from outer space as a benign and playful being invested with magical powers and best capable of interacting with children, in contrast to earlier science fiction stories which portrayed aliens as dangerous monsters. He later adapted the story as a script for a film called The Alien in 1967, though the film was later cancelled. However, Ray's story was strikingly similar to Spielberg's film E.T. later released in 1982, which may have been inspired by Ray's script for The Alien.
*  Poets
Jibanananda Das was a famous poet who, along with Buddhadev Basu, marks the beginning of the move to transcend the Tagore legacy. The new genere of Bengali poets departed considerably from Tagore's ideological style and adoped realism in their writing more pronouncedly. Titled polli-kobi (Poet of the Village) for works relating to the villages and countryside of Bengal, Jasimuddin is particularly famous for his poems that have become major highlights for pedagogical purposes in both West Bengal and Bangladesh. Shamsur Rahman is widely known for his 'playing with words'. He has built on the ground of the 30's poets, but he has developed the ground, explored into areas they thought too dark for exploration, has added new features to it, landscaped it and in the process left his footprints all over.
*  Musicians
Seminal Hindu religious works in Bangla include the many songs of Ramprasad Sen. His works (still sung today) from the 17th century cover an astonishing range of emotional responses to the goddess Kali, detailing complex philosophical statements based on Vedanta teachings and more visceral prouncements of his love of the goddess. They are known as Shyama Sangeet and were the literary inspiration for Kazi Nazrul Islam's later, famed Shyama Sangeet. There are also the laudatory accounts of the lives and teachings of the Vaishnava saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (the Choitanyo Choritamrit) and Shri Ramakrishna (the Ramakrishna Kathamrita, translated roughly as Gospel of Ramakrishna). There is also a large body of Islamic literature, that can be traced back at least to Noornama by Abdul Hakim. Bishad Sindhu depicting the death of Hussain in Karbala is very popular novel written by Mir Mosharraf Hossain. Later works influenced by Islam include devotional songs
written by Nazrul, and popularized by Abbas Uddin, among others.
*  Bauls and traditional singers
The mystic Bauls of the Bengal countryside who preached the boundless spiritual truth of Sôhoj Pôth (the Simple, Natural Path) and Moner Manush (The Man of The Heart) drew on Vedantic philosophy to propound transcendental truths in song format, traveling from village to village proclaiming that there was no such thing as Hindu, Muslim or Christian, only moner manush.
The literature discussed so far can be more or less regarded as the common heritage of both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Since the partition of Bengal in 1947, the east and west parts of Bengal have also developed their own distinctive literatures. For example, the Naxalite movement has influenced much of West Bengal's literature, whereas the Liberation War has had a similarly profound impact on Bangladeshi literature.
Major literary figures in Bangladesh include Shamsur Rahman, Sufia Kamal, Hasan Azizul Huq, Akhtaruzzaman Ilias and Humayun Azad , to name a few. Some notable writers from West Bengal are Sunil Gangopadhyay, Shankha Ghosh, Shakti Chattopadhyay, Mahasweta Devi and Joy Goswami.

Palash Biswas

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gostokanan, sodepur, kolkata-700110 phone:033-25659551


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7. 99 out of 169 members did not speak single word in Sindh Assembly du
    Posted by: "Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly" sindhweek
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))
Issue No: 117

99 out of 169 members did not speak single word in Sindh Assembly during whole year; Each member drawing Rs 41,000 monthly; Only 07 resolutions out of 293 passed

For details, plz visit Issue No: 117


SindhWeek.Com - an Online English News - Weekly to cover social & cultural activities of Sindhis living in various countries.

Plz visit: In case, it does not open, visit:


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8. Zardari Govt. has no money for Defense/Atomic Research?
    Posted by: "S Turkman" torkmaan
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Defense of Pakistan against who?
When 600,000 strong 'Sirkaari Saand' can not control just 10,000 Taliban in 7 years after getting $ 6 billion worth of US Military Aid Charity, who needs them for our Defense?
Had they defended us against India in East Pakistan?
Had they defended us in Tribal Areas against Taliban?
Have they defended us in Swat and adjoining areas against Taliban?
how the hell can they defend us against India (with 3 times bigger Army) that they should keep getting more than half of the Budget of poor Pakistanis every year?
Even if India makes Punjab Army surrender, she is never going to start ruling Pakistan. She would pull back out freeing all the Pakistanis from Punjabis. Had not India pulled out of East Pakistan?
Is not East Pakistan a free country?
Then, why we need to keep feeding Punjabi 'Saand' most of our money every year in the sacred name of Defense, when its really not sacred and its a lying cheating Scam?
1. Scare the hell out of Pakistanis with Indian Occupation to justify a huge Army ...!
2. Teach Hate of Non Moslims, when Pakistanis are still little Kds so, they can be Brainwashed ...!
3. Brainwash them with Propagunda of Patriotism, love of Armed Forces and the country so, they can become better Slaves of ours ...!
4. Declare every Non Punjabi nation or its leader Traitor and an Enemy of Fort of Islam, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ...!
5. Divide and Rule ...!
6. Keep conquering Pakistan again and again killing Non Punjabis to make them better Slaves ...!
7. Keep Non Punjabis out of Police and Armed Forces ...!
8. Steal whatever you can from other Provinces to make Punjab richer ...!
9. Whoever opens his mouth against Discrimination and injustice ...!
---<PakistanFoundation2000@...> wrote:
> Is our leadership in safe hands?
> 34 billion for loot and plunder BISP.
> Every now and then announcements
> by president and PM of unscheduled
> projects.
> Green Karachi is worth ............billions?
> Defence of Pakistan has no money because
> our enemies want to weaken it.

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9. (no subject)
    Posted by: "S Turkman" torkmaan
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

I agree with this detailed report but not on every point. My comments are inserted below.

--- On Fri, 5/1/09, sadiq ullah <> wrote:

http://thenews. pk/daily_ detail.asp? id=175214
 This is indeed our war
Friday, May 01, 2009
Farhat Taj

The Pakhtuns do not need enemies when they have self-proclaimed friends like Imran Khan - this is in response to his article published in this newspapers on April 23. The fact of the matter is that this war on terror is very much Pakistan's own war. It used to be America's war when the jihadis were funded by the US to fight the Red Army in Afghanistan. The Pakistani and international jihadis have now made it Pakistan's war. As a responsible state Pakistan cannot allow terrorists crossing over into Afghanistan to attack Afghan civilians (who are usually Pakhtun), the Afghan National Army and US and NATO forces in the country that came there under a UN mandate.
TURKMAN: Its also a violation of Pak Constitution under Clause 256 to permit a Non Government Militia. What is the purpose of National Assembly and Senate if it has never read the Constitution of Pakistan or if has, it has never objected on existence of Taliban and other JehaaDi Organizations?

The Musharraf government's decision to send the Pakistan army to Waziristan in 2004 was correct. But the decision came too late, too little and too half-heartedly.
TURKMAN: ... only on US pressure to start 'Nooraa KoshTi' (a Fake Wrestling Match) with Taliban.
 Following the US bombing of Al Qaida terrorists in Afghanistan in 2001, the foreign and Pakistani jihadis escaped into Waziristan. They were not welcomed by the people of Waziristan and proof of this also is that they killed more than 200 tribal leaders of Waziristan, after which the region's tribal order collapsed. The state under President Musharraf was guilty of criminal negligence for allowing the jihadis to decimate the tribal order.
TURKMAN: Because Illegitimate Children of Pak Army, the Taliban were more important to Pak Government than lives of her citizens.

Imran Khan may not know it or ignore it for political reasons but the fact is that there is a widespread perception among the Pakhtuns that the Musharraf government played a double role: on one hand it allowed the jihadis to take control of the tribal area and on the other hand showed the US that the Pakistan army was fighting the terrorists.
TURKMAN: Pak Army has been playing the same game even now. Army has been pretending that it does not have resources and power to control Taliban and other JehaaDis just to keep getting Aid Charity, Military Aid Charity and Loans from USA and the rich countries of the world by playing Taliban Card.
 It was during his regime that the army entered into agreements with the Taliban in FATA - and all of these failed.
TURKMAN: Because purpose of all those Agreements was to create hurdles against what USA wanted arbitrarily in order to fool USA. They were not Agreements. They were Concessions granted to Taliban instead of following on the promise made to USA to get all the billions of dollars worth of Aid Charity and Military Aid Charity and over $ 100 billion worth of Export Concessions from Allies of USA.
The agreements had two versions: oral and written. The written versions were according to the law of Pakistan.
TURKMAN: Not really, when Pak Constitution does not permit any such Agreements with Non Governmental Militia.
The oral versions implied that the Taliban would not attack Pakistan army and the army would let the Taliban do whatever they liked and this would include them crossing over into Afghanistan.
TURKMAN: Again this has been violation of Pak Constitution and violation of the promise made to USA to get all that Aid which had doubled the Per Capita Income of Pakistan in just 5 years after 2002.

The Taliban also happen to be sectarian terrorists in that many of their targets are Shias. And in this regard their primary targets are the Pakhtuns of Kurram, Orakzai and Dera Ismail Khan. I think Imran Khan will be hard-pressed to go to Parachinar and tell the Turi tribe that the Taliban are Pakhtun nationalists. The Turis in Parachinar have been besieged by the Taliban for over two yeas now - all their land links to the rest of Pakistan have been blocked and hundreds have died while fighting the Taliban. If one wants to talk of Pakhtun nationalism then instead of looking at the Taliban one should look at what, for instance, the Ali Khel in Orakzai did, where the Sunni section of the Ali Khel tribe stood up to the defence of the Shia ,when the latter came under threat from the Taliban. In addition to this, the Saralzai in Bajaur, the Khelil and Monand in Badabir and all those who stood up to the Taliban are the true embodiment of Pakhtun
nationalism,not the Taliban.

The Pakhtun jihadis, together with their non-Pakuthn jihadis, are attacking the very core of Pakhtun nationalism. Almost 90% of those killed, injured and maimed are ordinary Pakhtuns. Moreover, the Terrorists' Ideology is directly opposed to a Nationalist Ideology. The Pakhtun Taliban movement has all along been attacking all the symbols of the Pakhtun culture to bring the Pakhtun identity in line with that of the Arab Jihadists of Al Qaeda. To call terrorism a Nationalist Movement is to create hatred among different Nationalities living in the country especially, when the people being killed as a result of Terrorist Activities belong to different nationalities.

The Pakhtun are experiencing a Genocide-like situation at the hands of Taliban and Al Qaida terrorists . But people like Shireen Mazari, a member of Imran Khan's party, say that anti-Taliban local Lashkars are in fact American sell-outs.
TURKMAN: We demand, these people to provide a Proof that USA has ever paid anything to these PuxToon Tribes to fight or resist Taliban ...!
This is most disrespectful especially since it is more a case of the brave Pakhtuns taking up arms to defend themselves in the face of a complete absence of state protection.
TURKMAN: Can we ask, why should these PuxToons still be patriotic to Pakistan, when Pakistan has not been there for them to save their lives from Taliban and Al Qaeda?

Imran Khan often compares the Taliban militancy with the tribal resistance to the British colonial. This is an insult to the Pakhtun history. Unlike the Taliban no tribal resistance leader ever killed fellow Pkahtun in the name of Islam of fight against the British. It is difficult to assess the impact the Taliban had in Swat due to the problems people had with the judicial system. A group of people, who have never been elected - and probably will never be unless voters are forced to at gunpoint - blocking roads in protest does not automatically mean that there was a wider public support for them or their actions.
TURKMAN: Why should not PuxToons think, Pak Army had planned all this for Taliban because it had wanted them to take-over Swat to scare USA further since USA had refused to give Pakistan the Military Hardware that could only be used against India in Aid Charity Package. Why should we not think, Army created Swat take-over by Taliban to prove that Washington was wrong. "Look don't we now  need all the Military Hardware that USA had earlier refused to supply?"
Sufi Mohammad's TNSM got strength because the state succumbed to it again and again.
TURKMAN: ... with all its intentions since state was playing a game with USA and committing in-humane crime of Genocide against her citizens.
Do not forget that Sufi Mohammad is the same person that misled thousands of young men of FATA and NWFP to go to Afghanistan to fight against the US and Northern Alliance in 2001. He managed to return safely but most of those, who went to fight were either
killed or captured - hundreds are still missing. Their families wait for them and they curse Sufi Mohammad every single day. Now thanks to the ANP government, he has been made a hero.
TURKMAN: ... because of Army's pressure on ANP otherwise, Army starts assassinating ANP's elected Assembly Members.

Anyone who has lived in Swat would have experienced that people of Swat are the most liberal people among the Pakhtuns due to their dependence on a tourism-driven economy. The Sufi Mohammad-style sharia has never been their choice. They would never want their primary industry - tourism - to be destroyed by those, who rule over them. The argument of JI amir Munawwar Hasan that people of Swat elected the ANP and the PPP because his party boycotted the February 2008 elections is wrong. If religious right-wingers were so darling to the Swatis, they would have elected the JUI-F which was in the field.
TURKMAN: Percentage of votes caste in last Elections prove, people had not boycotted Elections or had listened to JI.

*  How come so many tribal leaders were killed all over FATA and no one has ever been arrested for it?
*  How come officials of the state and its institutions socially meet members of the Taliban (like they are their Relatives or Business Partners)?
I have often met desperate people, who say that the Taliban militancy has been engineered to send a message to the US and to extract more and more aid. More ominously, these Pakhtuns feel abandoned by the state.

Pakistan has to do the needful - something that it hasn't done so far. This means giving up the idea once and for all that the jihadis are strategic assets to fight proxy wars in Afghanistan and India. The next step would be to conduct targeted operations based on intelligence to destroy jihadi infrastructures all over Pakistan, eliminate their leadership and retake the territory ceded to the jihadis. Third, all those Pakhtuns who have stood up to the Taliban need to be protected. Disturbing as it may sound, the jihadis could well take over all of Pakistan, just like they have taken over Swat and FATA, unless of course the state chooses to crush them with an iron hand.
TURKMAN: How, when Army is hell bent on keep commiting Genocide against Pak Citizens in this Double Game  of Connivance and Deciet with USA and the West to keep getting Charity of tens of billions of dollars?

Whether the US offers financial help to Pakistan or not Pakistan has to fight this war to survive as a democratic state in the modern world.
TURKMAN: Which Democratic State? Its a Police State run by Army from behind the curtain even when we have so called Democratic Governments? All Countries have an Army. In Pakistan, Army has a country. 

The writer is a research fellow at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Gender Research, University of Oslo, and a member of Aryana Institute for Regional Research and Advocacy. Email: bergen34@yahoo. com

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10. A Slap on the face of USA & West - Pakistan has built Jet Fighters
    Posted by: "S Turkman" torkmaan
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

... and its a slap on the faces of ...
*  ... poor Pakistanis that Pakistan does not have money to provide them even Basics of Life like pure drinking water and Electricity but keepsw spending money on Atomic Bombs, Missiles, Tanks and Jet Fighters to keep them enslaved of Punjabi Army.
*  ... USA that a country living-off its Aid Charity since 1953 and Loans since 1955 has nothing to show for except for all the above.
* ... poor Pakistanis that their Beggar country gets Aid Charities showing their Poverty but eats up all the charities herself or spends on so called Defense, when it does not know, how to defend them.
*  ... the Donar Countries that Pakistan spends their money to build Nuclear Bomb and other Military Hardware out the money they never authorized be used for that purpose. 

---  "Emaad" <emaad.qureshi@...> wrote:
> Pakistanis  have showed that they are capable doing anything by building JF-thunder-17 fighter plane...this indeed is a slap on the face of Americans western countries who were imposing sanctions on Pakistan and this is also a wake up call for India who was expecting that.
>         Read More from the source

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11. Salmaan Farooqi: A snake in grass against President Zardari, Sindhis
    Posted by: "Sindh Week - Online Eng Weekly" sindhweek
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

TML clipboard                               


                                        HTML clipboard                               
Issue No: 117
Salman Farooqi: A snake in grass against 

 President Zardari, Sindhis in Fed Govt?
                                        SINDH [SindhWeek.Com Report] Recently Rs
                                        400 billion approvals made by President
                                        Asif Zardari in Karachi on April 20 but
                                        was "entirely a Karachi Show" whereas it
                                        was claimed by the Govt that approvals would be
                                        given for the development projects of


                                        A leading English daily The Frontier
                                        Post (April 22) has exposed,
                                        Salmaan Farooqi, Secretary General to
                                the President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari.


                                        Earlier a leading Sindhi daily reported
                        said Sindh Govt had submitted some projects to be
                        included for the 'Final Briefing' meant for Interior
                        Sindh, were surprisingly not included in the Briefing
                        like Coastal Highway, construction of Keti Bunder in
                        Indus Delta, Construction of small dams in Sindh, Lyari
                        Package etc., These projects were submitted to the
                        Salmaan Farooqi, Secretary General to the President but
                        he he in connivance with City Mayor, Karachi Syed
                        Mustafa Kamal [Racist & chauvinist] and Sindh chief Secretary Fazaul
                        Rahman deprived approval for Interior Sindh of various projects and
                        turned it as "entirely Karachi show."


                        A Sindhi writer on the condition of anonymity told
                        SindhWeek.Com that Salmaan Farooqi is conspiring
                        against Sindhis and is dancing at the tune of racist MQM
                        and thus creating 'bad name' of President Asif Zardari
                        among the eyes of Sindhis

SindhWeek.Com - an Online English News - Weekly to cover social & cultural activities of Sindhis living in various countries.

Plz visit: In case, it does not open, visit:


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12. Indonesia: Women won all the seats in Borneo
    Posted by: "S Turkman" torkmaan
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Jakarta, 30 April (AKI) - Women have challenged Indonesia's patriarchal political system with female candidates winning all seats in the province of West Kalimantan on the island of Borneo in a regional election. According to early results, Maria Goreti, Sri Kadarwati Aswin, Erma Suryani Ranik and Hairiah won all seats in a clean sweep for the regional representative council (DPD).
The body brings together representative from each province and has the right to make proposals, submit opinions on legislative matters and monitor implementation of laws.
The election for the DPD was held on 9 April, together with those for the national parliament and provincial assemblies.
Final results are expected soon but the four women in West Kalimantan appear certain to win.
In an interview with Adnkronos International (AKI), one of the winning candidates, 41-year-old Hairiah, 41, said that the women owed their success to increasing political awareness among women in West Kalimantan.
 "There are many organisations concerned about political education and women empowerment. They operate at the grassroots level, spreading information continuously," said Hairiah, who like most Indonesians uses only one name.
Asked whom she thinks voted for her, Hairiah, a lawyer, said that "most probably the votes came from the people I helped and from the organisations I have worked with."
Before entering politics, Hairiah worked for almost two decades for the local branch of the Human Rights Commission and for legal bodies that provide representation to women and migrant workers who are victims of violence. 
Female success in West Kalimantan is in stark contrast with the bleak picture for women at national level.
During the legislative period of 2004-2009, only 11.8 percent of the 488 parliamentarians were women.
Early estimates of the April election indicate that this percentage may have decreased considerably.
Activists blame the December ruling by the Constitutional Court that abolished party rankings and enforced a first-past the post system enabling those with the most votes to be elected.
Women are also poorly represented in the leadership of the 38 political parties that contested the election and in the current government.
However, Indonesia, the country with the world's largest Muslim population, has had a female president in Megawati Sukarnoputri who ran the country from 2001 to 2004.

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13. Excellent US Policies in the Third World Countries.
    Posted by: "Mansoor Hallaj" tarot66
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Saturday, May 2, 2009

Obama, Bush, US Policies in Pakistan and Fragile Democracy.

US President - Barack Hussein Obama


"I´m more concerned that the civilian government there right now is very fragile and don´t seem to have the capacity to deliver basic services: schools, health care, rule of law, a judicial system that works for the majority of the people. [US President Barack Obama - as reported by The News International dated, Friday, May 01, 2009]Pakistan´s civilian govt very fragile, says Obama


Political Scene and Americans before February 2008 General Elections in Pakistan and even after that:

Why respect the people's mandate when USA had enjoyed an Excellent Company, Friendship and Support of a Rampant Pakistani Military Regime.

Former US President George Bush with Pakistani Military Dictator General Pervez Musharraf

U.S. Embrace of Musharraf Irks Pakistanis By DAVID ROHDE Published: February 29, 2008

ISLAMABAD, Pakistan - The Bush administration´s continued backing of President Pervez Musharraf, despite the overwhelming rejection of his party by voters this month, is fueling a new level of frustration in Pakistan with the United States.

That support has rankled the public, politicians and journalists here, inciting deep anger at what is perceived as American meddling and the refusal of Washington to embrace the new, democratically elected government. John D. Negroponte, the deputy secretary of state, said Thursday during a Senate panel hearing that the United States would maintain its close ties to Mr. Musharraf.

Pakistanis say the Bush administration is grossly misjudging the political mood in Pakistan and squandering an opportunity to win support from the Pakistani public for its fight against terrorism. The opposition parties that won the Feb. 18 parliamentary elections say they are moderate and pro-American. By working with them, analysts say, Washington could gain a vital, new ally.

The American insistence that Mr. Musharraf play a significant role, they say, will only draw out a power struggle with the president and distract the new government from pushing ahead with alternatives to Mr. Musharraf´s policies on the economy and terrorism, which are widely viewed here as having failed.

"I´ve never seen such an irrational, impractical move on the part of the United States," said Rasul Baksh Rais, a political scientist at the Lahore University of Management Sciences. "The whole country has voted against Musharraf. This was a referendum against Musharraf."

Over the last week, more than a dozen editorials and commentaries have appeared in Pakistan´s leading newspapers accusing the United States of "meddling" in the country´s affairs. Many have taken particular umbrage at statements by President Bush and other senior officials praising Mr. Musharraf, despite his lack of support among voters.

A series of postelection meetings between American Embassy officials and Asif Ali Zardari, the head of the victorious Pakistan Peoples Party, have also been criticized.

American officials have met three times with Mr. Zardari since the election. They have met twice with Nawaz Sharif, a former prime minister whose own opposition party won the second most seats in Parliament.

In the meetings, American officials urged both leaders to work with moderate forces and Mr. Musharraf, according to officials from the two parties and the United States. It is the insistence to include Mr. Musharraf that rankles Pakistanis.

American officials said the meetings were routine. "This is standard diplomacy," said an American official who spoke on condition of anonymity.

But Pakistani observers called the request that the parties work with Mr. Musharraf inappropriate, given his sweeping defeat. Typical of the outrage was an editorial published Sunday by The News, an English-language newspaper, with the headline "Hands Off, Please!"

"No further efforts must be made to intervene in the democratic process in Pakistan," the editorial read. "The man who the U.S. continues to back has in many ways become a central part of Pakistan´s problems."

A senior American official in Washington acknowledged that there was worry within the Bush administration about being seen as meddling. The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak publicly on the issue, conceded that American attempts last year to construct a power-sharing deal between Mr. Musharraf and former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto "didn´t really work out quite as we´d hoped." Differences remained between the president and Ms. Bhutto, who was killed Dec. 27.

"The last thing we need is to be seen by the Pakistanis as interfering again," he said.

But while American officials have sought to portray the United States as neutral, their statements underscore that Mr. Musharraf remains at the center of the United States policy here.

On Monday, Dana Perino, the White House spokeswoman, said President Bush continued to support Mr. Musharraf for "all of the work that he´s done to help us in counterterrorism."

"Now it will be up to the people of Pakistan to see what their new government will look like," she said. "But the president does certainly support him."

During his Senate hearing on Thursday, Mr. Negroponte said, "I think we would, as a general proposition, urge that the moderate political forces work together, and of course President Musharraf is still the president of his country, and we look forward to continuing to work well with him as well."

Mr. Negroponte refused to call for the reinstatement of the judges dismissed last year by Mr. Musharraf when he imposed emergency rule. "We have been silent on this subject," he said. Then he added, "to the best of my knowledge."

That silence by American officials has led Pakistanis to accuse the United States of ignoring the will of voters, analysts say. The issue fueled anger against Mr. Musharraf and the protest vote against him.

In Pakistan, each American statement has been dissected in the media and widely perceived as overt American pressure.

In an editorial on Monday, the Daily Business Recorder, a leading English-language newspaper, criticized a call Mr. Bush made to Mr. Musharraf after learning of what it called his allies´ "electoral debacle." It also cited Richard A. Boucher, an assistant secretary of state, as saying after the election that Mr. Musharraf "remains important to Washington."

Mr. Bush and other administration officials still regard Mr. Musharraf as a significant player and as a force for stability in Pakistan, and one who could regain his standing, said an official involved in the policy deliberations.

The official said that American officials were waiting to see if the opposition could form the two-thirds majority needed to render Mr. Musharraf a powerless, ceremonial president, or even impeach him. The Americans recognize that the opposition parties have long feuded and think they could fail to unite.

"Musharraf still thinks he has options, which he does," said an administration official who spoke on condition of anonymity. "The administration thinks so as well, but only so long as he does not overplay his hand."

Over the last year, American assessments have repeatedly proven wrong. Before the Feb. 18 elections, a senior American intelligence official predicted in a briefing to journalists that no party would win a clear majority and that Mr. Musharraf would remain the strongest political figure in the country.

Wamiq Zuberi, chief editor of the Daily Business Recorder, said Washington "obviously doesn´t have the correct appreciation of the environment here." He and others said the American backing for Mr. Musharraf had generated consternation among analysts who believe that Mr. Musharraf is not only deeply unpopular but also that he has performed poorly of late in the campaign against terrorism, polarizing Pakistan and striking a series of truces with militants.

"I´ve followed this for years, and I´ve never seen it so clear, apparent and continuous," Nasim Zehra, a Pakistani analyst and writer, said of what she considered the American interference. "It´s not surprising, given the mindset in Washington."

Central to the Bush administration´s support is the feeling that Mr. Musharraf retains the loyalty of the Pakistani Army, even though he stepped down as army chief in December. Current and former administration officials say they fear that withdrawing American support from Mr. Musharraf would alienate Pakistan´s military, country´s most powerful institution.

"He is still valuable for his relationship with the army," said Daniel Markey, who helped coordinate Pakistan policy in the State Department from 2003 to 2007. "He is someone who the United States should work with - and will work with - for fear of alienating that important partner."

Western military officials say Pakistan´s armed forces - Mr. Musharraf´s last potential bastion of support - have shifted loyalty to his chosen successor, Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani.

And they say General Kayani will choose stability over saving Mr. Musharraf. "If Kayani and Musharraf were diametrically opposed," said a Western military official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, "I think Kayani would prevail."

Ms. Zehra, the analyst, said that General Kayani had distanced himself from Mr. Musharraf by issuing a surprise order in January barring all officers from holding government posts or engaging in politics.

The move effectively prevented Mr. Musharraf from using Pakistan´s military intelligence agencies to manipulate the election. The loyalty of Pakistan´s military is irrevocably shifting behind General Kayani, she said. "The army will be led by its chief always," she said. "The former chief is always the former chief."


John Negroponte

THE NEGROPONTE FILE: NEGROPONTE'S CHRON FILE FROM TENURE IN HONDURAS POSTED National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 151 - Part 1 Edited by Peter Kornbluh April 12 , 2005


The 392 cables and memos record Negroponte's daily, and even hourly, activities as the powerful Ambassador to Honduras during the contra war in the early 1980s. They include dozens of cables in which the Ambassador sought to undermine regional peace efforts such as the Contadora initiative that ultimately won Costa Rican president Oscar Arias a Nobel Prize, as well as multiple reports of meetings and conversations with Honduran military officers who were instrumental in providing logistical support and infrastructure for CIA covert operations in support of the contras against Nicaragua -"our special project" as Negroponte refers to the contra war in the cable traffic. Among the records are special back channel communications with then CIA director William Casey, including a recommendation to increase the number of arms being supplied to the leading contra force, the FDN in mid 1983, and advice on how to rewrite a Presidential finding on covert operations
to overthrow the Sandinistas to make it more politically palatable to an increasingly uneasy U.S. Congress.
As per BBC News dated 27 February 2008

Speaking in Delhi, Mr Gates said the polls had been bad for Mr Musharraf. But Mr Gates said the US hoped to continue working with the man he described as the elected president of Pakistan. US cautions Pakistan over Taleban Last Updated: Wednesday, 27 February 2008, 13:29 GMT

The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On

Documents Spotlight Role of Reagan, Top Aides

Pentagon Nominee Robert Gates Among Many Prominent Figures Involved in the Scandal

National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 210

Richard Cheney -

now the vice president, he played a prominent part as a member of the joint congressional Iran-Contra inquiry of 1986, taking the position that Congress deserved major blame for asserting itself unjustifiably onto presidential turf. He later pointed to the committees' Minority Report as an important statement on the proper roles of the Executive and Legislative branches of government.

Robert M. Gates -

President Bush's nominee to succeed Donald Rumsfeld, Gates nearly saw his career go up in flames over charges that he knew more about Iran-Contra while it was underway than he admitted once the scandal broke. He was forced to give up his bid to head the CIA in early 1987 because of suspicions about his role but managed to attain the position when he was re-nominated in 1991. (See previous Electronic Briefing Book)

John Negroponte -

the career diplomat who worked quietly to boost the U.S. military and intelligence presence in Central America as ambassador to Honduras, he also participated in efforts to get the Honduran government to support the Contras after Congress banned direct U.S. aid to the rebels. Negroponte's profile has risen spectacularly with his appointments as ambassador to Iraq in 2004 and director of national intelligence in 2005. (See previous Electronic Briefing Book)

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi - Shah of Iran

America's most vulnerable ally in the war on terror is Pakistan. But our alliance with the nuclear-armed Islamic state may be exacerbating that country's instability. Once before in that part of the world, Washington backed a high-profile ruler without regard to his constituents' wishes: Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi of Iran. The result was a fiasco for American foreign policy. The Shah's legacy should caution U.S. policymakers that allying too openly with an unpopular leader could have dangerous repercussions.

From 1953 to 1979, Iranian life under the Shah was dreadfully brutal. Through SAVAK, the Shah's secret police and intelligence service, political opponents were routinely tortured. Methods included electric shock, nail extraction, insertion of broken glass into the rectum, and "cooking," which entailed strapping a victim to a bed of wiring that was then heated, cooking the victim alive. The Shah's repression was systematic and unyielding, but he was also America's principal strategic ally in the region. President Dwight Eisenhower gave the Shah millions of dollars in emergency aid for his complicity in Operation Ajax, the U.S. -- British coup that overthrew the democratically elected Iranian prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953, a decisive turning point in Iran's history. President Lyndon Johnson, who mistakenly praised the Shah for "winning progress without violence and without any bloodshed," signed-off on a six-year, $600 million military sales
credit package for the Shah. And President Richard Nixon offered the autocrat the right to buy any non-nuclear U.S. weapons system without congressional or Pentagon review, a deal later described by Time magazine as "carte blanche" for the Shah. [The Shah of Pakistan? By Malou Innocent From the Cato Institute Wednesday, January 23, 2008; 8:45 PM


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14. Indian Muslim Leaders Condemn Taliban's 'Jizya' On Sikhs in Pakistan
    Posted by: "yogi sikand" ysikand
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Joint Statement of Indian Muslim leaders
Pakistani Taliban´s treatment of Sikhs in tribal areas is illegal and barbaric
We, religious, political and community leaders of the Indian Muslims, are alarmed at the reports coming out of Pakistan´s tribal areas about the Pakistani Taliban´s kidnapping, extortion of huge amounts of money from their Sikh compatriots as "Jizya" and demolition of the houses and shops of those who fail to pay the demanded sums.
We would like to say that Jizya is a tax paid in an Islamic state for exemption from military service by healthy non-Muslim adults who are free to follow their vocations without restriction or fear, and that there is no other tax payable by them after paying this tax, unlike Muslims who have to pay various taxes including Zakat and have to perform military service as well.
Jizya was payable by non-Muslims only in lands conquered by Muslims like Egypt, Syria and Iraq but not in unconquered areas like Madina where during the time of the Holy Prophet no Jizya was ever imposed on non-Muslim citizens who enjoyed equal rights and duties under the Constitution of Madina. For many centuries Jizya has not been levied by Muslim states and today even the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Islamic Republic of Iran do not levy Jizya on non-Muslims for the simple reason that non-Muslims in these states pay all taxes payable by others. Prominent Islamic scholars of the modern times like Shaikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi are of the view that Jizya should not be imposed now as non-Muslims are equal citizens of Muslim states and  pay all taxes paid by other citizens and shoulder all the duties.
We wish to make it clear that the imposition of the so-called Jizya is nothing more than extortion by an armed and lawless gang which does not constitute a sovereign government or state or even an organ thereof. Moreover, Pakistan´s tribal areas are not "conquered lands" as their non-Muslim population has been living there for centuries. These areas were part of the British India and became part of the new State of Pakistan as a result of peaceful transfer of power on Partition.
As regards the huge amounts in millions reported to be demanded, these are arbitrary and exorbitant as the amount of annual Jizya paid by non-Muslims in early Islam was merely one to one and a half dinar, which is 4.24 gram to 6.36 grams of gold. Moreover, this tax was payable only at the end of the year and not in advance.
We regard this as an act of injustice incompatible with the letter and spirit of Islam and the international covenants accepted by all Muslim states.
We demand that the Pakistani authorities must take earliest steps to retrieve the extorted sums and pay them back to their affected non-Muslim citizens and facilitate their peaceful return to their homes and properties in their traditional homelands and give them all due protection.
Maulana Mufti Mukarram Ahmad
Shahi Imam, Jama Masjid Fatehpuri, Delhi
Hafiz Muhammad Yahya
President, All India Jamiat Ahl-e Hadees
Maulana Abdul Hameed Nomani
Secretary, Jamiat Ulama-e Hind
Syed Shahabuddin
Former PM & ex-President, All India Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat
Prof Tahir Mahmood
Member Law Commission of India
Mujtaba Farooq
Secretary, Jamaat-e Islami Hind
Maulana Ataur Rahman Qasmi
President, Shah Waliullah Institute, Delhi
Maulana Waris Mazhari
Editor, Monthly Tarjuman, Delhi
Dr Zafar Mahmood
President, Zakat Foundation of India
Dr SQR Ilyas
Member, Muslim Personal Law Board
Dr Zafarul-Islam Khan
President, All India Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat
Mirza Yawar Baig
President of Yawar Baig & Associates
Shahnawaz Ali Raihan
Secretary, Students Islamic Organisation

Issued at New Delhi on 2 May 2009
Issued by the All India Muslim Majlis-e Mushawarat, Delhi
For media comments only please contact or phone 09811142151

Sukhia Sab Sansar Khaye Aur Soye
Dukhia Sahib Kabir Jagey Aur Roye

The world is 'happy', eating and sleeping
The forlorn Kabir Sahib is awake and weeping

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15. Ather Farouqui: Urdu Press in India
    Posted by: "yogi sikand" ysikand
    Date: Sun May 3, 2009 11:41 am ((PDT))

Urdu Press in India
By Ather Farouqui (
This article is concerned with an examination of the state of the art of Urdu journalism in contemporary India. In attempting this analysis my purpose is to address the question whether or not Urdu journalism has played a constructive role in shaping Muslim sensibilities in post-independence India in the sense of enabling the community to face up to the challenge of adjustment as a large minority group in secular India. I shall argue that Urdu journalism during the post-independence period has very largely failed to perform this expected role. For reasons which are partly inherent in the nature and character of the Urdu readership, and which partly arise from the political and economic proclivities of individual Urdu journalists as well as from their linkages to political parties, Urdu journalism has more often than not been prone to reinforce a sectarian and emotional outlook among readers. At any rate, Urdu journalism has often disturbed Muslim
positions on substantial issues of concern to the community and the country at large, ignoring the emerging social realities within the community. Accordingly, this discussion of Urdu journalism in India is set against the changing position of Urdu and the socio-economic changes Muslims in India have experienced during the past sixty years.
It is significant to note that a glance over the journey of Urdu journalism reveals that except a few minor changes in north Indian Urdu journalism (like a few new newspapers appearing on the scene or the emergence of electronic media) the mainstream Urdu journalism has by and large remained static. Their ethos and subject matter has hardly changed. With the settling of the dust of destruction of Babri Masjid, Urdu print-media has come back to square one. There is no sign of change in the mentality of Urdu print-media.
Electronic media has slightly changed its attitude in respect of Urdu linguistic minority but that is a different field of study. However an important fact in this respect is-if the problems associated with Urdu are political, and if Urdu means the language that is identified by its script rather than by speech, then the language used by electronic media, irrespective of its Perso-Arabic lexical terms and words has to be seen differently. Urdu in its spoken form is called either Hindustani or Hindi (the classical examples are Mughal-e Azam and Razia Sultan which are branded and even certified as Hindi Films). Constitutionally speaking, even Hindustani is a form of Hindi along with many other major languages of the north like Braj, Avadhi, Haryanavi, Rajasthani, Magahi and Bhojpuri etc.  Earlier Maithili was also included in the canon of Hindi but now it has its independent existence. Hence in its spoken form, Urdu also becomes Hindi and thus even the
newly sprouting Urdu TV Channels will automatically become Hindi channels.   
This unfair treatment meted out to major and rich languages of north India by illiberal forces have penetrated even the Constitution. For a true democratic state, this needs to be immediately rectified. Under Article 351 of the Constitution, Hindustani is stated as a form or Hindi. But one must not forget that Hindustani was to be declared (in two script-Urdu and Devnagri) as the national language of free India. But before that could happen our country was partitioned into two and Gandhiji assassinated by reactionaries.
As far as the Urdu print media is concerned, a small visible change has occurred in north India because caste politics has fragmented society. As a byproduct an Urdu newspaper, Rashtriya Sahara, has sprouted (from Monthly to Weekly to Daily) in many cities of India. The claims of circulation made by the management are need to be verified and the phenomenon of growth too needs a proper study in perspective. Since I could not do that in this paper for the simple reason that this paper is not a case study of some selective newspapers but it tries to examine broad trends so I did not go further with Sahara story knowing well that this newspaper, with obvious political leanings, has been pandering to the needs of a casteist protagonist cum Muslim populist like Mulayam Singh Yadav in the same way as Urdu weeklies of the north had been fanning fundamentalist tendencies for their petty gains. This is a contemporary example of sectarian political clout. On the
other hand, despite tall claims, the Congress failed to address the problems of Muslims, failed to start the process of their social cohesion and economic development. In a worsening situation, it also lost its only link to Urdu knowing Muslim society which is mainly based on women and madrasa graduates, with the degeneration of Daily Qaumi Awaz and ultimately the closing down of its Lucknow edition. Although Urdu knowing people (script-knowing) in UP are very few but post 6 December (1992), the assertion for their Urdu based identity has been fortified.
After Partition, Urdu was seen by average Muslims in India as the language of their cultural identity and religious instruction medium as it has become the sole medium of dini madaris education and for this reason evokes a deep attachment.  As far as the aspect of  Muslim identity in the name [admixture] of culture and religion is concerned, this was not always the case. Historically, Urdu was the language of the ruling Muslim elite and elite Hindus who came in touch with Muslim rulers. The common masses, and others, communicated in the regional languages without feeling a tension as to whether it was Urdu or Hindi, or some other language.
Urdu suffered a decline after India was partitioned and was threatened by the official support extended to Hindi by the government in free India. The Muslim leadership of post partition India campaigned for Muslims to declare Urdu as their mother tongue and to consider it as a symbol of their cultural identity. Also the political compulsions of the north Indian Muslim elite to consolidate Muslims, who are otherwise internally differentiated, strengthened this campaign. One of the consequences of this development namely the subsidy given to Urdu publications by the government was that it made sure that Urdu journalism would die particularly in north India.
In India the Urdu press, by and large, is a Muslim press although in some southern states a few good Muslim newspapers are being published in regional languages. A large number of representative Muslim weeklies are published from Delhi. But in this assessment I have included only those Urdu newspapers, mainly weeklies and dailies, which have played any role, even if negative, in the lives of India´s Muslims in general.
The concessions granted to Urdu newspapers by the government to appease Muslims are readily exploited by some people, although most of them have no relation with journalism. These people get a registration number for an Urdu paper and publish fifty to hundred copies. However, they falsely claim that they publish greater numbers, to obtain government advertisements and the quota of newsprint. Surprisingly, the office of the Registrar of Newspapers plays a passive role and does not try to find out if the figures submitted to it by the respective newspapers are authentic. Most of the owners of these newspapers (who also happen to be their editors) indulge in blackmailing one or other political party in the name of their newspaper.
Out of the three hundred and forty-seven registered publications, there may be hardly forty to fifty which in fact reach public hands. Most of these publish file-copies only for the government´s record. However, in this assessment I have included only those newspapers which really reach the public, and are published regularly. These papers possess the capability of motivating public opinion.
Without doubt, today the Muslims of south India, particularly Karnataka are recognising Urdu as their language and a symbol of their religious identity in the changed political milieu, even if Urdu was never their language and in the past they were greatly distanced from the Muslims of north India. Culturally, north Indian Muslims always considered themselves different from Muslims in the rest of the country. They were also victims of a pronounced sense of superiority. This cultural distance and the strong sense of superiority on the part of north Indian Muslims became a great hurdle in linking them with south Indian Muslims.
This factor also prevented the movement for Pakistan from reaching south India. Except for a few big cities, migration to Pakistan from the south was limited (Precisely because of the hold of north Indian Muslims over the Muslim League, particularly by the ashraf (gentry) and the middle class, linguistic and cultural conflicts have arisen there even after the formation of Pakistan). The subsequent establishment of Bangladesh and the remarkable rise of the Muhajir Quami Movement (MQM) in the refugee-dominated urban areas of Sindh province are ample proof of this.
Muslim politics in contemporary India is not particularly different from what they were in the past. The hold of north Indian Muslims on Muslim political campaigns even after independence has been strong. This prompted the presumption that the north Indian Muslim leadership would also be successful in the south. However, the defeat of Syed Shahabuddin in Bangalore during the 1989 general elections made the north Indian Muslim leadership acutely aware of its real standing in the south.
Over the recent past Muslims in India has been the centre of two public controversies. The first controversy centred on whether a divorced Muslim woman was entitled to maintenance from her husband under certain provisions of the Criminal Procedure Act, entitling women to claim such maintenance to avert their taking to vagrancy or prostitution, when a husband´s liability towards his wife after divorce ceased under Muslim Personal law. The second controversy concerned the claim of a section of chauvinist Hindus to build a Ram Temple on the site of the Babri Masjid, allegedly built by Mughal emperor Babar after bringing down a temple in the sixteenth century. Muslims waged fierce struggles for the enactment of a law to annul the Supreme Court judgement[1] in the Shah Bano case, and for the protection of the Babri Masjid (which was, eventually, forcefully demolished by fanatical Hindus on 6 December 1992, plunging India into serious Hindu-Muslim strife).
The Muslim leadership´s short-sighted campaign in the Shah Bano case was to change the Supreme Court judgement upholding a Muslim divorcee´s right to maintenance under the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code, through a legislative enactment[1] enabled the chauvinist Hindu leadership to convince common Hindus that in matters of faith the judgement of the court had no place. Accordingly, when the Supreme Court directed that the structure of the Babri Masjid should not be disturbed, as no available evidence indicated that a temple originally existed on its site, the Hindu leadership started arguing that the ruling of the court had little validity when the people believed that a temple actually existed there. This stand has not changed and has recently been emphasized by the VHP in its Haridwar session.
The style and objectives of the Muslim leadership in the Shah Bano and the Babri Masjid campaigns were ill-conceived, as arguably was Muhammad Ali Jinnah´s Muslim League campaign to have a separate homeland for Muslims carved out of the Muslim majority areas of undivided India. It was sheer luck for Indian Muslims that those running the Shah Bano and the Babri Masjid campaigns lacked Jinnah´s mobilising skills.
To be able to appreciate the role of the Urdu press in the lives of Indian Muslims, we need to divide Urdu publications between Urdu weeklies, fortnightlies and monthlies on the one hand and Urdu dailies on the other. Urdu weeklies, fortnightlies and monthlies published on a regular basis enjoy the patronage of the Muslim leadership of Delhi in particular, and north India in general, and it is widely known that they receive their funding from the same sources which finance the activities of fundamentalist Muslim leaders. These publications can, therefore, be regarded as truly reflecting the mentality of north Indian Muslims. Nonetheless, among the publications belonging to this category, the number of those published on a regular basis is limited to one or two. Most of them are open advocates or official organs of political parties or ideological organisations. Therefore, their circulation and their area of influence are greatly restricted.
The weeklies published from Delhi command a comparatively larger circle of readers among Muslims. Their role in the formation of Urdu journalistic thinking is substantial and a true reflection of the sentiments of north Indian Muslims and their social situation. Muslim readers in the north are educationally backward. Muslim readers from organisations, which in fact are unconcerned with the real problems facing Muslims, particularly those relating to their educational backwardness and under-representation in public employment or even their general poverty, find the north Indian soil extremely fertile for their campaigns. Therefore, most Delhi-based Urdu weeklies keep giving currency to self-created stereotypes and misconceptions which place severe limits upon their potential for growth.
The sources of such stereotypes and misconceptions are varied. There are some stereotypes and misconceptions which anti-Muslim forces have deliberately given currency to, in an organised fashion. Even so, a good many of the stereotypes and misconceptions have been popularised by Delhi-based Urdu weeklies too. For instance, Urdu publications have all along harped on the discriminatory treatment meted out to Muslims in India, often explaining the social and economic backwardness which characterises this community entirely and exclusively in terms of the failure of the Government to protect Muslim interests or to secure economic advantages for them. One is not suggesting that there is no discrimination against Muslims in contemporary India. What one is suggesting is that discrimination is only a part of the story. Equally a number of internal factors as well as their post-partition psychological orientations can be a factor in the continued backwardness of
the community. However, the Urdu press has never even raised the question that there might be other factors which might have contributed to their continued backwardness. Even if proved wrong on subsequent scrutiny, such searching analyses would have broadened Muslim horizons to their predicament in post-independence India and enabled Muslims to come to terms with their existential realities. Unfortunately, Urdu journalism has been content with reiterating the common clichés.
For a while in the 1980s a slight change in Urdu journalism was discernible. At that time some new newspapers started appearing and several of the old publications re-oriented their outlook in order to reflect emerging realities.The National Herald, an organ of the Congress, started its sister publication in Urdu known as Quami Awaz from Delhi. The Quami Awaz set a new trend of healthy journalism in comparison with other Urdu dailies of north India, and despite being an organ of the Congress; it became a necessary reading for enlightened and sober Muslims in some parts of northern India, particularly in western Uttar Pradesh in 1980s. The Nai Duniya which had resumed its publication in 1973 as a weekly newspaper, assumed extraordinary popularity in 1980 when communalism and extremism were at a peak. Another weekly newspaper, Akhbar-e Nau appeared on the scene in the mid 1980s. Akhbar-e Nau indulged in blindly backing Imam Bukhari. During the Muslim
Personal Law movement and later on the Babri Masjid movement, it assumed great importance, and by 1990 it was among the leading Urdu weeklies of the country. When Janata Dal came to power, the then Prime Minister VP Singh, on the recommendation of Imam of Jama Masjid of Delhi, Abdullah Bukhari, granted a Rajya Sabha seat to its editor Muhammad Afzal who was consequently elected as the Rajya Sabha MP as Janata Dal candidate. After stepping into the political arena, Muhammad Afzal´s interest in the newspaper, and simultaneously the influence of the paper on the common Muslim, also started fading. During the period of the Babri Masjid movement two more papers, the daily Faisal Jadeed and weekly Hamara Qadam, were launched. The daily Faisal Jadeed was a newspaper without news.[1] It was more a `views-paper´ of people who were extremely narrow-minded. Instead of bringing about an awareness among the Muslim masses of the issues involved it worked
towards inciting Muslims to fever pitch. It remained very popular during the heyday of the Babri Masjid Movement.
After the demolition of the Babri Masjid, which resulted in the virtual collapse of the movement for its protection, Hamara Qadam and Faisal Jadeed almost ceased publication. Nai Duniya, a publication brought out by another member of the Urdu press magnate family which has dominated the Urdu journalistic scene, played a vital role in orienting Muslims towards political aggressiveness in northern India. Akhbar-e Nau´s editorial comment on the eve of the launching of Hamara Qadam gives an idea of the opportunist attitude of this as well as other newspapers, including Nai Duniya. It reads:
In the journalistic brotherhood of Delhi, the name of Siddiqui brothers is worth mentioning. Maulana Abdul Waheed Siddiqui, the founding father of Nai Duniya (weekly), Huma and Huda (monthly digests) had four sons who were publishing separate newspapers and magazines. Nai Duniya is edited by his youngest son Shahid Siddiqui whereas his eldest son Ahmad Mustafa Siddiqui Rahi brings out the magazine Huda. As compared to Nai Duniya, Rahi had brought out a more bulky weekly Humara Qadam ...
What is interesting is that the political experience and outlook of Shahid Siddiqui and Ahmad Mustafa Siddiqui are sharply contrasting. Shahid Siddiqui a staunch communist from his very early stages was an atheist whereas Ahmad Mustafa Siddiqui was pro-religion, anti-Communist and a staunch Congressman from the political point of view. However, after the starting of their respective newspapers, the outlook and ideology of both of them has entirely changed.[1]
Elsewhere the editor of  Akhbar-e Nau openly conceded the sub-standard level of Urdu journalism. His contention is that Urdu journalism acts as a mouthpiece of the communal Muslim leadership. But he holds the government responsible for these problems. He feels that if communal riots did not occur and if the government took an interest in solving Muslims´ problems, then Urdu newspapers would not be able to misguide and exploit innocent Muslims.[1]
Similar sentiments had been echoed by Masoom Moradabadi when he launched Khabardar Jadid in 1991. Indeed, the Khabardar Jadid was explicitly launched with the objective of rooting out the destructive orientation of Urdu journalism. However after some time he himself drifted towards the same kind of provocative and destructive journalism. His views on Urdu journalism based on his association with the profession over several years are nonetheless pertinent:
The majority of Urdu newspapers wishes to keep their readers buried under grief and pessimism and also wants to keep them mentally retarded so that they may be rendered inactive in practical life. Since independence the majority of Urdu newspapers have done nothing except lamentation. They deliberately search and compile such material which would push Muslims into pessimism and hopelessness. These newspapers have published stories of this tyranny on the community with renewed vigour, but they never care to educate them and tell them that there are ways and means to come out from these circumstances and live a respectable life. These newspapers are sacred that they will educate and adequately guide the readers, that no one will buy their blood-drenched newspapers.[1]
Another tragedy of the Delhi-based Urdu publications is that despite a sea-change having taken place in the political situation of Muslims in India, their orientation remains what it was around the seventies. They openly arouse Muslims to high pitch, almost trying to build mass Muslim hysteria over the Babri Masjid issue, and prompting Muslims to take to militancy during the movement. This orientation was reflected by several newspapers between September to December 1990.[1]
Today their circle of readers comprises the lowly educated and politically ill-informed poor Muslims. Among the stable readership of Urdu journalism and particularly Delhi-based weeklies, one section is of those persons whose political temperament has been shaped by those papers which have, by creating misconceptions about Muslims and about Urdu journalism, rendered the situation extremely complex and perhaps beyond redemption. They carry an image of themselves as a backward, discriminated against and culturally threatened community.
The trouble is that the Delhi-based weeklies and other Urdu papers and magazines have not familiarised themselves with the changing situation of Muslims. Nor have they thought of giving space to the problems of the newly educated and emerging middle class (whose size is nevertheless quite small) among north Indian Muslims. Precisely because of this, journalism continually harps back to the image of Muslims as backward and discriminated against, a perception that is not universal to Indian Muslims in view of distinctive regional variations in the standing of Muslims in different parts of the country, and because it does not reflect issues of concern to the emerging Muslim middle class, it has failed to establish all-India credentials for itself at any time. It is only in situations of extreme emergency, when an issue that seems to threaten Muslim cultural identity comes to the fore that the reach of such papers extends beyond north India.
Since the 1970s a new generation of Urdu journalists has come up in North India. Even so, neither the tenor and temperament of Urdu journalists nor their attitude, which compels them to analyse things from the perspective of the 1970s, has changed. Urdu journalism is entirely indifferent to the importance of the mass media in the changed circumstances and new printing technologies. Among the over-simplified explanations offered by Urdu journalists for the sad state of their affair are the reluctance of average Muslims to buy newspapers and the inability of Urdu newspapers to secure advertisements as readily as English, Hindi and some other regional newspapers does.
Around the early seventies the educated stratum among north Indian Muslims was almost non-existent, and the Muslim middle class had become greatly diminished through migration to Pakistan. Yet at that time a good many Urdu magazines and newspapers were published in large numbers. But today, when the Muslim middle class has expanded, education among south Indian Muslims has become common and the economic situation of even north Indian Muslims has improved, it is surprising that the print orders of Urdu newspapers and magazines have declined substantially, and several such papers and magazines have ceased, or are about to cease, publication. This exactly illustrates the predicament which confronts Urdu journalism today.
Leading Urdu weeklies which today focus on north Indian Muslim problems and politics are no longer relevant outside north India. The pattern of Muslim politics in south India is quite different from that of north India. North Indian Muslim politicians have never thought of undertaking measures to truly improve the lot of their constituents and their empty and meaningless political rhetoric does not echo a sympathetic chord in south India.
After the collapse of the highly emotionally charged Muslim Personal Law and the Babri Masjid issues, the scope for Urdu newspapers to carry on those polemics has virtually ended. Muslim youth is also gradually realising that the solution to the frequent outbreak of communal riots does not really lie in reinforcing a ghetto mentality or promoting the idea that all Muslims constitute a well-knit and unified community, which north Indian Muslim politics has traditionally recommended. It is also beginning to see that Urdu newspapers have been using Muslim youth as fuel to feed the fire of Muslim fears, to see themselves as a well-knit community threatened by conscious efforts to erode their distinctive identity under the patronage of the state, through presentation of extremely emotional analyses of the communal scenario.
Another factor responsible for the decline of influential Urdu newspapers published from Delhi is the eclipse of Urdu in this region. The new generation of Muslims, in some north Indian states, particularly Uttar Pradesh, is hardly conversant with Urdu, as Urdu ceased to be taught as a language in schools except those run by Muslims. Historically, Urdu was culturally refined in Uttar Pradesh and became a popular lingua franca in this region under the patronage of Awadh rulers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Thus, Urdu was learned by Muslims as well as by non-Muslims as a matter of course and facilities for teaching of Urdu existed in all schools. During the Congress Raj in 1937-9 and after independence, the state policy in respect of teaching Urdu was dramatically changed with the Urdu script replaced by the Devanagari. Today the result is those young Muslims who are unable to go beyond primary education, are modestly conversant with
Hindi but know no Urdu.
It is the educationally backward Muslims who stayed on after partition in north Indian provinces and who had at least a smattering of Urdu constitutes the regular readership of Urdu newspapers. Indeed, the Urdu newspapers and Muslim politicians evolved their political strategy of reinforcing a ghetto mentality by playing on the sensibilities of this very section of north Indian Muslims. But the reality is that poor and ill-educated Muslims have little choice other than to read regional Hindi newspapers, despite their anti-Muslim, communal biases.
After Partition, such Muslims demonstrated a very emotional attitude towards Urdu. They also lent a degree of support to campaigns for Urdu and whenever necessary they made sacrifices for it. However, because of the short-sighted and self-serving politics of the Muslim leadership, Urdu has become merely a part of their past cultural heritage. Urdu's decline has rendered the existence of a prestigious Urdu newspaper virtually impossible. Urdu magazines get a larger quota of government sponsored advertisements than some of the regional language magazines, the size and standard of which far exceeds that of Urdu magazines. As the figures in the table below show, Urdu newspapers are the fifth largest recipients of state sponsored advertisements.
As far as advertisements of corporate and private firms are concerned, it stands to reason that they should be reluctant to put advertisements in Urdu magazines whose readers represents the most backward section of Muslims. One is not here talking of Hindu-Muslim differentiation. Even Muslim business firms give very few advertisements to Urdu publications compared with English and Hindi periodicals. It is the middle class that by and large constitutes the consumer class in India and the purpose of advertising is to influence it. If Urdu periodicals do not reach the consumer class, why should any firm give them advertisements?

S. No.


Total Amount (in Rs.)of govt. sponsored advertisements

























































Source: Annexure referred to in reply to Rajya Sabha
un-starred Question No. 4305 for reply on 22 December 1992
The state of Urdu journalism is far more favourable in those linguistic regions of India where Muslims are proud of their religious identity and are actively sharing the region'´ cultural ethos. In all such regions the percentage of the population that knows Urdu is much smaller than in north India. Even in those regions where Urdu is not the mother-tongue of Muslims, the situation of Urdu is much better than in north India, and the attitude of Muslims towards Urdu is pragmatic, not emotional. From the organisation of education to other spheres of practical life the position occupied by Urdu has neither become a hurdle to development nor come in conflict with their regional identity.
Let us undertake a brief evaluation of Urdu journalism in the Urdu speaking and non-Urdu speaking linguistic regions. The Congress Party´s Urdu daily, Qaumi Awaz, published from Delhi whose circle of readers until 1995 was extremely wide, includes Muslims of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. Even the hostile Muslim reaction against the Congress after the demolition of Babri Masjid could not erode the popularity of this daily. The print order of Urdu dailies published from other cities and towns of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi would number not more than a few hundred. As stated, most of these dailies publish only file copies for securing newsprint quotas and other facilities. This number also includes Urdu dailies like Pratap which is owned by a refugee Punjabi establishment, and whose readership by and large comprises that section of Punjabi and Sindhi Hindus and Sikhs who had learnt Urdu as a second language in pre-partition days. They represent the last generation
of Urdu-knowing Hindus and Sikhs. The succeeding generation of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs is unfamiliar with Urdu and Hindus form the hardcore of fanatics. Therefore, the attitude of this group, as well as Hind Samachar (51264), which was the largest circulation in this part of the country, is openly hostile towards Islam and Muslims.
In Bangalore, a city in the Kannada-speaking region, one popular Urdu daily, Salar (11871), is doing well even though the size of the Urdu speaking population of Bangalore is substantially lower than in the main cities of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi.The picture is not vastly different in Calcutta. The attachment of Bengali Muslims for their language is proverbial. Throughout the struggle of the Bengali Muslims to carve East Pakistan out as a distinct country the issue of Urdu verses Bengali remained at the core. The protagonists of Pakistan, an eminent Muslim scholar Maulana Syed Sulaiman Nadvi and the Maulvi Abdul Haq, who earned the title of the grand old man of Urdu, argued that Bengali Muslims should not express hostility towards Urdu as the national language of unified Pakistan. They asserted that Urdu contained many Arabic words and is written in the Arabic script, the language of the Quran. The East Bengali Muslims rejected this logic and established
Bangladesh with Bengali as the national language. By contrast, two popular Urdu dailies: Azad Hind (15351), Akhbar-e Mashriq (12882) are published in Calcutta.
Urdu is not widely spoken in Maharashtra or Andhra Pradesh. Muslims constitute a relatively small section of both these states. Moreover, education in both states is conducted predominantly in the regional language. Over the years, in a bid to support the campaign of north Indian Muslims to have Urdu declared as the second official language, Muslims of both states have started Urdu schools and claimed Urdu to be their mother tongue. However, Marathi in Maharashtra and Telugu in Andhra Pradesh remain the languages of everyday communications. Even so, three prominent dailies: Inquilab (23531), Urdu Times (19746), and Hindustan (8612) are published in Bombay. Three Urdu dailies: Siyasat (39949), Rehnuma-e Deccan (20982), and Munsif (9390) are published from Hyderabad.
In Bihar where a substantial number of Muslims are concentrated and Urdu is the recognised second official language, the state of Urdu journalism is discouraging. In Patna alone, nearly fifty dailies or weeklies are published, but the real print order in a majority of cases is limited to fewer than a hundred copies.
It is being recognised belatedly that Urdu journalistic establishments in Delhi and other north Indian states will have to change their linguistic policy, in view of the emerging reality that the new generation of north Indian Muslims is unfamiliar with Urdu. It will also be necessary that rather than exclusively focusing on the issues of north Indian Muslims, they will have to give greater space to Muslims in the rest of India, particularly south Indian Muslims. The Hindi weekly Nai Zameen (47901) is largely a response to this emerging reality. It will provide an alternative to the highly communal anti-Muslim local dailies to which the Hindi-knowing Muslim youth are willy-nilly forced to be exposed. Other newspapers that wish to restrict themselves to north India will also have to increasingly publish their Hindi editions like Nai Duniya. As they do so, they will have to shift emotional and provocative issues that have traditionally appealed to Muslims
in north India, and accord greater space to serious socio-economic and employment-related issues which educated Muslim youth are increasingly facing in contemporary India.
The system of most of the Urdu newspapers is at least one century old. In today´s modern world one would be at a loss to understand how these newspapers, which are printed so carelessly and frivolously, survive and serve as vehicles of Muslim journalism in India. The office of most of the newspapers consists of one room. In the name of the working staff, there are one or two Urdu DTP operators or calligraphers and one or two sub-editors. The job of the sub-editors is to select the already published stories from various newspapers and mould them according to their own policy and ideology so that they appear provocative and anti-Muslim. Proof-readers and copy-editors have no role in Urdu newspapers in India. Sub-editors are generally not very well educated people. The only quality they have is that they have a working knowledge of Urdu and Hindi. Normally they do not know English, the reason being that they are products of orthodox dini madaris
(religious educational institutions). The salary of a sub-editor in most of the cases is a third of an orderly in a national daily. They are usually paid as little as Rs. 2000.
These Urdu newspapers generally have no column for intellectuals or for commissioned articles. Therefore, there is no question of paying an honorarium to writers. Thus, it is the owners of the papers who generally occupy the seat of editor who become wealthy, as their publications, despite being sub-standard, are quite popular among the Muslim masses.
This picture is gradually changing with the slow increase in the size of the Muslim middle class. Educated Muslims who have some familiarity with the English language, and are interested in national problems, are turning to Hindi and English newspapers. English newspapers, unlike Urdu ones, are more beneficial to them personally because they provide information about jobs, and admissions to universities. The management of weekly, India Today, and also some other newspaper houses on several occasions decided to start publication of Urdu versions. However, each time the Urdu editors discouraged them by presenting to them distorted facts about the Urdu readership. They were told that Muslims do not trust the national press and by nature they tend to be `anti-establishment´. As a result such proposals have been shelved. However, it is almost certain that if some prominent newspapers or magazine would publish an Urdu version, it would be a sure success
because Urdu is a symbol of the culture and identity of the Muslims throughout the country. Until this happens, the prospects remain that Urdu journalism will continue the traditional game of arousing Muslim sentiments through provocative writing, and render them susceptible to the influence of the communal leadership with which a good many Urdu journalists are themselves aligned due to their own ambitions for political prominence and professional clout.


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